In this study, the possibility of radionuclide removal from landfill leachate was evaluated by using generally practiced leachate treatment processes. As a result, more than 93.9 % of the Co, Mn, Ni, and Sr present in the RL could be removed at the alkali removal step by coprecipitation or precipitation as carbonate. Cs could not be removed by any treatment steps, even though there was a zeolite adsorption step. Cs removal can be achieved by frequently exchanging the zeolite in the zeolite adsorption tank. However, because that will generate more wastes and increase costs, it is necessary to adopt another treatment step for Cs removal.
Acknowledgments This work was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 12014030.
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.
1. Ministry of the Environment (2012) Additional information of 13th Commission of safety assessment for disaster waste disposal. env.go.jp/jishin/index.html#haikibutsu. Accessed 9 July 2013 (in Japanese)
2. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (2013) Measurements of radioactive concentrations in sewage sludge etc. mlit.go.jp/mizukokudo/sewerage/mizukokudo_ sewerage_tk_000211.html. Accessed 9 July 2013 (in Japanese)
3. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (2011) The approach to immediate handling of secondary byproducts of water and sewage treatment in which radioactive materials were detected. nsr.go.jp/archive/nisa/english/press/2011/09/en20110909-2-2.pdf. Accessed 9 July 2013
4. Rowe PK, Quigley RM, Brachman RWI et al (2004) Barrier systems for waste disposal facilities. E&FN Spon, London
5. Kurniawan TA, Lo WH, Chen GYS (2006) Physico-chemical treatments for removal of recalcitrant contaminants from landfill leachate. J Hazard Mater 129:80–100
6. WHO (2012) Preliminary dose estimation from the nuclear accident after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. WHO, Geneva
7. Japan Sewage Works Association (1997) Wastewater examination method, vol 2. Japan Sewage Works Association, Tokyo (in Japanese)
8. Greenwood NN, Earnshaw A (1997) Chemistry of the elements, 2nd edn. ButterworthHeinemann, Oxford
9. Pourbaix M (1974) Atlas of electrochemical equilibria in aqueous solutions. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, Houston
10. Mellis EV, Cruz MC, Casagrande JC (2004) Nickel adsorption by soils in relation to pH, organic matter and iron oxides. Sci Agric 61:190–195
11. NITE (2008) Risk assessment of chemical substances, vol 69. National Institute of Technology and Evaluation, Tokyo (in Japanese)
12. Kumada K (2001) Chemistry of soil organic matter. Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo (in Japanese)
13. NIES (2012) Appropriate waste disposal in terms of radionuclides behavior, technical data. National Institute of Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (in Japanese)
14. Tsushima I, Ogoshi M, Yamashita H et al (2013) Behavior of radioactive cesium in wastewater treatment plants and dissolution test of contaminated sewage sludge. J Jpn Soc Water Environ 36:23–28 (in Japanese)
15. Charlot G, Sone K (1974) Chemical reactions in solution. Kyoritsu Shuppan, Tokyo (in Japanese)
16. Takano T, Tamura Y, Nishizaki Y et al (2012) Radiocesium removal from leachate in general waste disposal using zeolite. Tishiseisou 65:218–222 (in Japanese)