Advances in Carbon Management Technologies: Biomass Utilization, Manufacturing, and Electricity Mana

IntroductionOnly Emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) Can Account for the Warming Experienced Since the Industrial RevolutionThe Heat Added by Anthropogenic Emissions of GHGs is Already Yielding Major Impacts, with More to ComeThere is the Danger of a Runaway Situation if Warming occurs Too Rapidly and Activates Tipping Points Associated with Amplifying FeedbacksGrowing Global Emissions, the Result of a Growing Population Demanding an Expanding Array of Resource Intensive Goods and ServicesEach Country Has a Unique GHG Emission Trajectory and Mitigation ChallengeGreenhouse Gas Emissions are Associated with All Energy, Industrial and Agricultural/Land Use SectorsMajor Emission Mitigation from All Sectors and GHGs is Required Immediately in Order to Have a Chance of Meeting International TargetsEmerging Technologies Will need to be Available and Extensively Utilized if Global Warming Target Levels Stand a Chance of Being AchievedTechnology RD&D is Woefully InadequateGeoengineering Options should be StudiedConclusionsReferencesSection 1. Biomass SectorBiomass as a Source for Heat, Power and ChemicalsIntroductionClassification of Biofuels According to Biomass FeedstocksFirst-generation biofuelsBio-alcoholsBio-oilsDisadvantages of First-generation BiofuelsEnvironmentalFood crisisWaterDeforestationSocial costsHigh production costsSecond-generation BiofuelsEnergy cropsMunicipal solid wasteGreen wasteBlack liquor“Drop-in ” biofuelsEnvironmental impactGreenhouse gas emissionsAdvantages of second-generation biofuelsDisadvantages of second-generation biofuelsThird-generation Biofuels or Algae FuelNutrients and growth inputsCarbon dioxideNitrogenWastewaterCultivationClosed-loop systemPhotobioreactorsOpen pondTurf scrubberEnvironmental impactEconomic viabilityUse of byproductsFourth-generation BiofuelsDesigner microorganisms in production of solar biofuelsElectrobiofuelsFrom current biorefineries to synthetic factories in production of solar biofuelsTypes of BiofuelsGaseous biofuelsBiogasSyngasLiquid biofuelsBioethanolBiodieselGreen dieselStraight vegetable oilsBioetliersAviation biofuelsSolid biomass fuelsChipsChippingDryingGrinding and sievingPelletizingBriquettingUse of additivesReferencesFrom Sugarcane to Bioethanol: The Brazilian ExperienceIntroductionEthanol: from Henry Ford’s prediction to Brazilian realityThe Brazilian bioethanol timelineRaw materials for bioethanol productionBioethanol MarketThe origins of bioethanol in BrazilSugarcane and the bioethanol marketBrazilian Ethanol ProductionSustainability of using bioethanol as a fuelReferencesBiomass in Regional and Local ContextIntroductionInfluences of Spatial Context on Bio-resources based TechnologiesRules for Establishment of Spatially Adapted Bio-Resource UtilisationUse bio-resources fully within ecological limits“Bio-refinerise” existing bio-resource based sectorsFavour material goods over energy sendeesRetain as much material as possible in the regionUse intersection points of distribution grids as sitesPlanning Contextual Bio-Resource UtilisationConclusionReferencesPrioritising Uses for Waste Biomass: A Case Study from British ColumbiaIntroduction: Biomass as an Energy SourceBritish Columbia: A Suitable Case for StudyBC’s energy system and climate aspirationsBiomass resources in BCEnvironmental AssessmentUses of BiomassTechnologies and efficienciesHeat, power and cogenerationGasification to synthesis gasHydrothermal LiquefactionAnaerobic DigestionAssessment of costs and benefitsPrioritisation of usesDistrict heatingAnaerobic digestionBiomass exports: Wood pelletsDiscussionConclusionsReferencesIndustrial Oleochemicals from Used Cooking Oils (UCOs): Sustainability Benefits and ChallengesIntroductionChemistry of FryingImpacts of Waste Fats and OilsProduction and Potential Supply of UCOsUsed Cooking Oil Collection and Pre-treatmentUCOs Valorization AlternativesUCOs as Energy SourceUCOs for heat and powerBiodieselHydrotreated vegetable oilCurrent use of UCOs as Drop-in Functional Chemical or as Oleochemical FeedstockConcluding RemarksAcknowledgmentsReferencesAdvances in Carbon Capture through Thermochemical Conversion of BiomassIntroductionThermochemical Conversion of BiomassCombustionCCS for biomass combustionChemical looping for carbon captureGasificationPyrolysisTorrefactionComparison of Carbon Capture PotentialConclusionsReferencesPhytowaste ProcessingIntroductionA Brief Overview of Processing TechniquesMacerationAcid HydrolysisEnzymatic hydrolysisBiogas productionCompostingSteam explosionShockwave pretreatmentPyrolysisSummaryReferencesAnaerobic Digestion for Energy Recovery and Carbon ManagementIntroductionPrinciple of Anaerobic DigestionVarious Processes for Anaerobic DigestionConventional processHigh rate processTwo-pliase anaerobic digestionDry anaerobic digestionCase Studies for Carbon Recycling with Anaerobic DigestionCarbon recycling with anaerobic digestion in land environmentsRecycling and treatment system of pig manure with rice cultivationFuture directionC recycling with anaerobic digestion in marine environmentsAnaerobic digestion of marine bioresources seaweed and chitinConcluding RemarksReferencesCritical Aspects in Developing Sustainable Biorefinery Systems Based on Bioelectrochemical Technology with Carbon Dioxide CaptureIntroductionDiscussions on Essential Tools for Biorefinery Design and DevelopmentBiorefinery Configurations with Microbial Electrosynthesis for Carbon Capture and UtilizationTechno-economic AnalysisLife Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Sustainability AssessmentBiorefineries with Carbon Dioxide Utilization to Deliver the United Nations Sustainable Development GoalsSDG 6—clean water and sanitationSDG 7—affordable and clean energySDG 8—decent work and economic growth (by “economicproductivity through diversification and technological upgrading and innovation ”) (Sadhukhan et al., 2019)SDG 9—industry, innovation and infrastructure (by “increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes”) (Sadhukhan et al., 2019)SDG 12—responsible consumption and productionSDG 13—climate actionConclusionsReferencesSynthesis of Regional Renewable Supply NetworksIntroductionConcept and Approach for the Synthesis of Truly Sustainable Renewable Supply NetworksConcept of system-wide supply networks and a multi-layer superstructureConcept of sustainability net present valueDerivation of sustainability net present valueTruly sustainable solutionsGeneral mathematical programming formulationCase StudyConclusionsAcknowledgementReferencesA Logistics Analysis for Advancing Carbon and Nutrient Recovery from Organic WasteIntroductionBiogas Upgrading and Carbon CaptureBio-methane as a renewable source of energyTechnical alternatives for biogas-carbon managementChemical absorption: AminesPressure swing adsorptionMembrane separation systemsCarbon recovery by chemical productionCarbon Footprint Mitigation by Nutrient RecoveryCompostingFiltrationCoagulationStruvite productionRenewable Energy Incentives as Carbon Reduction InitiativesEuropean Union and United StatesOther countriesNorth AmericaAsiaOceaniaSouth AmericaEffect of a Carbon Credit Policy Implementation in the USA: A Wisconsin Case StudyConclusionsAcknowledgmentsDisclaimerReferencesEfficient and Low-Carbon Energy Solution through Polygeneration with BiomassIntroductionAvailability of BiomassLogistics of BiomassBiomass Conversion SystemsPolygenerationPolygeneration using biomass and hybrid-biomassPolygeneration System Design for Different ProductsSustainability Assessment of Biomass-based PolygenerationConclusionReferencesSection 2. Manufacturing and Construction (Batteries, Built Environment, Automotive, and other Industries)Urban Carbon Management StrategiesIntroductionGlobal and regional urbanization trendsCarbon Effects of UrbanizationUrban classificationCarbon effects of MDCsCarbon effects of LDCsOther major carbon effectsCarbon Management Strategies and ToolsStrategiesDecentralized plant growthDensificationPublic transportationRenewable energy and efficiencyUrban agricultureToolsBuilding life cycle cost programsCarbon calculation toolCarbon footprint calculatorsCarbon monitoring systemCarnegie antes Stanford approachForest vegetation simulatorGeographic information systemi-TreeLANDISLight detection and rangingNEDScenario analysisUnique challenges in managing individual carbon emissionsEmerging Strategies and TechnologiesBAS integration strategiesSocial densificationSolid oxide fuel cell technologyAcknowledgementsNomenclatureReferencesAdaptive Lean and Green (L&G) Manufacturing Approach in Productivity and Carbon Management EnhancementIntroductionLean ManufacturingGreen ManufacturingLean and Green (L&G) ApproachLean and Green Analytic ModelData collection and analysis procedures based on L&G frameworkMulti-criteria decision method—Analytic hierarchy process (ЛНР)Lean and green index (LGI)Manpower index, MPMachine index, MCMaterial index, MTMoney index, MYEnvironment index, EVAdaptive lean and green approach for continuous improvementLean and green case studyData collection and discussionAnalytic hierarchy process (AHP) analysisLean and green index (LGI)Analytical continuous improvement in the lean and green indexAcknowledgementNomenclatureA AvailabilityRecommended Reading ListReferencesAdvancements, Challenges and Opportunities of Li-ion Batteries for Electric VehiclesIntroductionWorking Principles of Li-ion BatteriesChallenges Faced by Li-ion Batteries for Electric VehiclesStatus and Advancements in Anode MaterialsStatus and Advancements in Cathode MaterialsStatus and Advancements in ElectrolytesConcluding RemarksReferencesCharging Strategies for Electrified TransportIntroductionEnergy Storage SystemsCharging Methodologies I—Wired/Plug-in ChargingCharging Methodologies II—DC Fast Charging TopologiesCharging Methodologies III—Wireless ChargingPhotovoltaic/Grid Interconnected DC Charging ApplicationsPhotovoltaic/grid integrated DC charging architectureConcluding RemarksAcknowledgementsReferencesSection 3. Electricity and the GridThe Role of Microgrids in Grid DecarbonizationIntroductionMajor Technical Challenges in the Transformation towards Decarbonized Grid and MGs’ RoleThe Concept of MG and Multi-MG SystemsControl, optimization and market mechanisms of a single MG unitControl hierarchy of MGsThe optimizationElectrical market structure and MG’s participationMGs’ Roles to Facilitate Decarbonization SchemesIntegration of renewablesReduction of power line lossesFacilitation of CHPAggregation, control and management of PHEVsAggregation and control of DR resourcesConclusionAcronymsReferencesStorage of Fluctuating Renewable EnergyIntroductionStorage capacity and volume required for different energy systemsThermal StorageStorage using sensible heatStorage using latent heat of meltingMechanical Storage: Water ReservoirsChemical StorageBatteriesReversible chemical reactionsPower-to-Gas and Power-to-Liquid Energy StorageConnections between chemical and biological ways of energy storageHydrogen economy, CO, based storage way, biological wayComparison and ConclusionAcknowledgementsReferencesLithium-ion Battery: Future Technology Development Driven by Environmental ImpactIntroductionEU Competitive, Sustainable and Innovative Strategic Battery Value ChainNext-generation BatteriesReferencesCarbon Constrained Electricity Sector Planning with Multiple ObjectivesIntroductionMulti-objective Optimization ProblemPrioritizing Power PlantsGraphical representation of solution spaceTwo-objective optimizationThree-objective optimisationCase Study of the Indian Power SectorPresent energy scenarioFuture of Indian power sectorTwo-objective optimizationThree objective optimizations of the Indian power sectorConclusionsReferences
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