Routledge Handbook of Food Waste

Food waste: our anthropocene legacy?Global narratives of scaleA multi-dimensional concernGrowing public and policy attentionAddressing gaps in food waste studies: technology, innovation, and including diverse perspectivesEncountering food waste: the response of scholar-activismEmbodying waste/guilt: a gendered perspectiveSeeking root causes, recasting received wisdomThe variegated and visceral politics of food waste activismA more inclusive approach to food waste studies: alternative paradigms, alternative food waste conceptualisations, and alternative solutionsSensing wasted food materialities: a wellspring for politics ... and art?Animal relations and beyond-humansReconnecting the distance: alternative food systemsBuilding new foundations of relationalityJoining the movement: a new wave of food waste studies and the international food loss and food waste studies groupNotesReferencesI. Understanding modern food waste regimes: Historical, economic, and spiritual dimensionsAFTER MARKET: Capital, surplus, and the social afterlives of food wasteIntroductionAbject capitalThe work of waste-makingShadow economiesThe recovery of the marketConclusionNotesReferencesTHE PERFECT STORM: A history of food wasteContributors to food wasteEarly environmental concerns: landfills to climate changeMeasuring the scale and impacts of food and organic wasteDeveloping solutions for food wasteFeed peopleThe storm hitsA globalizing social movement: The media and organizational delugeNoteReferencesFOOD WASTE, RELIGION, AND SPIRITUALITY: Jewish, Christian, and Muslim approachesIntroductionJudaismFaith in practice around wastefulnessChristianityIslamActionConclusionAcknowledgementNotesBibliographyINTERROGATING WASTE: Vastogenic regimes in the 21st centuryIntroductionThe food waste paradoxGetting to know wasteSystemic practices of food/waste: the UKThe governmentality of waste in the UKThe sociotechnical waste dispositifCreating vastogenic behaviours and appetites for wasteConclusion: There is no ‘food waste’NotesReferencesII. Food waste (and loss) along the food supply chain and institutionsPRODUCE LOSS AND WASTE IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIONAgricultural losses often missing from discussions of food wasteDifferentiating “food loss” and “food waste”Growers aim to prevent a wide variety of lossesLosses in production are driven by constraints outside the growers’ controlThe amount of fresh produce lost in agricultural production is not yet well understoodStrategies that can reduce agricultural food loss may not incentivize growersQuantification of losses in agriculture leads to new knowledge about food productionReferencesFOOD LOSS AND WASTE IN PROCESSING AND DISTRIBUTIONIntroductionFLW during processing and distributionThe business case for reducing FLWVolume of FLW occurring in processing and distributionReducing FLW in processing and distributionThe importance of adopting a value chain approach to FLWHow to reduce FLW in processing and distributionTools and techniquesProject charterProcess mapTim WoodMeasureCause and effect (fishbone) diagramWhole of chain frameworkDeveloping and sorting ideasAction logFuture state processPulling it together to ensure continual improvementConclusionsNotesReferencesFOOD WASTE (AND LOSS) AT THE RETAIL LEVELIntroductionGeneration and composition of food waste in retailPre-store food waste induced by retailIn-store food wastePost-store food waste induced by retailReasons and influencing factors for food waste in retailPrevention measuresConclusionsAcknowledgementReferencesHOUSEHOLD FOOD WASTEIntroductionAn overview of household food waste generation and managementAssessing diverse drivers of household food wasteSocio-demographic factorsBehavioural factorsEmotions, values, and identityThe household in context: food waste as a systemic phenomenonInterventionsNoteBibliographyFOOD WASTE IN THE SERVICE SECTOR: Key concepts, measurement methods and best practicesIntroductionBackground on food waste in the food service sectorKey conceptsThe current situation: food waste amount, origin, composition and consequencesFW measurement methods and toolsBest practices for reducing food wasteSurplus food utilisationReferencesIII: Overview of regional food waste: Research, policy, and legal approachesFOOD WASTE IN THE UK AND EU: A policy and practice perspectiveIntroductionWealthy, yet poverty and food insecurity remainKey FLW stakeholdersWRAPEU FUSIONSUN FAOFood loss and wasteRoutes to reducing food wasteBalancing power between farmers and supermarketsRetail redistributionLegislation/regulationEU levelNational levelSub-national level: ScotlandVoluntary actions by businessUK’s supermarket sectorEntrepreneurshipGrassroots movementsStop wasting food—DenmarkFareshare—UKGleaningBrexitConclusionNotesReferencesFOOD LOSS AND WASTE MEASUREMENT METHODS AND ESTIMATES FOR THE UNITED STATESIntroductionKey food loss and Avaste studies and estimates in the United StatesUSDA/ERS food loss estimation methodU.S. EPA food waste methodology and estimatesReFED estimatesMore simplistic approaches that combine dataOther methods are available to estimate food loss and wasteIncentives to reduce/prevent, recover, or recycleLooking aheadNoteReferencesAPPREHENDING FOOD WASTE IN ASIA: Policies, practices and promising trendsIntroductionLiterature reviewCase studies in food waste managementCambodia (Phnom Penh)India (Bengaluru)IndonesiaJapan (Kyoto City and Oki Town)The PhilippinesDiscussion and conclusion: looking ahead toward promising food waste strategies in AsiaNotesReferencesFOOD WASTE WITHIN SOUTH AFRICA AND SAUDI ARABIAIntroductionFood waste within South AfricaHarvest and post-harvest lossesLosses and waste in food supply chainsFood waste in municipal solid wasteFood waste in informal settlementsNational estimates of food waste and costHouseholds’ food waste behaviourUniversitiesFood wastage in hospitalsFood waste management in the hospitality sectorBiomass waste from food productionEnvironmental footprint of food wasteGovernance issuesFood waste within Saudi ArabiaFood waste policyOther food waste reduction actionsMeasurement of food loss and wasteNoteReferencesFOOD WASTE IN AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALANDIntroductionFood waste in AustraliaResearch and quantificationRecent policy developmentsFood waste in New ZealandResearch and quantificationRecent policy developmentsPossible actions and interventions for Australia and New ZealandReferencesESTIMATING TOTAL AND PER CAPITA FOOD WASTE IN BRAZILIAN HOUSEHOLDS: A scenario analysisIntroductionContextualizing food waste policy in BrazilThe construction and analysis of wasteful scenarios in Brazilian householdsDescription of the studyData used and scenario descriptionData collection and analysisThe physical and monetary dimensions of FLW in Brazilian householdsFinal considerationsNotesReferencesIV. Methodologies in food waste studiesQUANTIFYING FOOD WASTE: Food waste audits, surveys, and new technologiesIntroductionWhy quantify?Conceptualizing food wasteQuantitative food waste measuresThe food loss and waste protocolData collection methodsWaste composition analysisSamplingSorting and weighingSurveysMeasuring food waste with surveysResearch design in surveysSurvey administration and accessEmergent methodsComparing quantitative methodsConclusionNotesReferencesMOVING BEYOND THE ‘WHAT’ AND ‘HOW MUCH’ TO THE ‘WHY’: Researching food waste at the consumer levelIntroductionUnderstanding the why: an introduction to theories of consumer behaviourA practice-based approach to research food wasteWhat is a practice?Application of theories of practice in consumer food waste researchMethodological considerations for practice-based food waste behaviour researchEthnography: a toolkit of observation methodologiesWhat is ethnography?Methodological considerations for ethnographyDiaries as a research methodWhat are kitchen diaries?Types of kitchen diariesPaperDigital kitchen diariesAutomatic kitchen diariesBenefits of kitchen diariesLimitations of kitchen diariesWays to overcome limitationsSuggested further readingReferencesAPPLYING BEHAVIOUR CHANGE METHODS TO FOOD WASTEChanging food waste preventing behavioursMotivation abilities and opportunities frameworkMotivationAbilitiesOpportunitiesInteractionsInterventions based on the MOA frameworkTranstheoretical model (TTM)Stages of change, household food management behaviours and food wasteDecisional balanceSelf-efficacyProcesses of change, household food management behaviours and food wasteUsing the TTM processes of change to develop campaign messagesConclusionReferencesALL MY RELATIONS: Applying social innovation and Indigenous methodology to challenge the paradigm of food wasteIntroductionWhat is social innovation and why apply this to food waste?Case study: Food Systems LabLab methodology: Preliminary researchWorkshop 1: Seeing the SystemWorkshop 2: Designing SolutionsWorkshop 3: Prototyping InterventionsAdrianne Lickers Xavier vignette: food as relationsConclusionNoteReferencesMODELLING APPROACHES TO POOD WASTE: Discrete event simulation; machine learning; Bayesian networks; agent-based modelling; and mass balance estimationIntroductionDiscrete event simulationMilk model and key findingsMachine learning and Bayesian networksThe use of systems models to identify food waste drivers: Grainger et al. (2018a)Model selection and averaging in the assessment of the drivers of household food waste to reduce the probability of false positives: Grainger et al. (2018b)Agent-based modellingAn ABM of retail food wasteOutputs and applicationsAn ABM of consumer food wasteApplications and preliminary resultsMass (energy) balance estimationQuantifying food waste as a balance between availability, metabolism and calories consumedConclusionsDiscrete event simulationMachine learning and Bayesian networksAgent-based modellingMass (energy) balance estimationNotesAcknowledgementsReferencesV. Solutions to food waste?SURPLUS FOOD REDISTRIBUTIONIntroductionA typology of surplus food redistributionBrokerage: corporate donation for redistributionChallenger modelsSummaryConceptualising surplus food redistributionPolicy actions and surplus food redistributionConcluding discussionReferencesKEEPING UNAVOIDABLE FOOD WASTE IN THE FOOD CHAIN AS ANIMAL FEEDIntroductionLivestock farming and food waste: two challenges to tackle in creating a sustainable food systemAnimal feed in the food use hierarchyThe environmental impact of pig and chicken farmingThe EU banThe backyard pig globally and the unregulated feeding of food wasteModern pig farming and use of food wasteUsing food waste as feed safelyTreatment and feeding modelsEconomic and welfare benefitsThe way forwardReferencesFROM DUMPSTER DIVES TO DISCO VIBES: The shifting shape of food waste activismFood not bombs: free meals against capitalismWhat’s contentious about free food?Freegans: diving in, opting outFrom anti-capitalism to anti-wasteDisco Soupe: “Yes, we cut”Conclusion: a new world out of/without wasteNotesReferencesTHE EFFECTS OF LABELLING, PACKAGING AND THE EATING ENVIRONMENT ON CONSUMER-GENERATED FOOD WASTELabellingPackagingLarger is better biasDemographic and lifestyle factorsEvaluations of packaging versus of foodPortion sizeThe eating environmentServewareTablescapeIdentity-related issuesFuture researchReferencesUPCYCLING AND VALORISATION OF FOOD WASTEIntroductionValorisation of fractions from agri-residue feed-stocks for protein and fibreProtein products from brewers’ spent grains (BSG)Protein concentrates from potato by-productsFunctional fibre and other products from citrus wasteFibre materials from pea haulmValorisation of fractions from agri-residue feed-stocks for micro nutrientsValorisation of fractions from agri-residue feed-stocks for waxesBusiness case study: turning food by-products into functionalised food ingredientsConclusionsNotesReferencesEXPLORING THE POTENTIAL OF DIGITAL FOOD WASTE PREVENTION IN THE RESTAURANT INDUSTRYIntroductionCurrent literatureFood waste in the restaurant industryUse of digital technologies in the food service industryPotential perils of digital platformsResearch problem and aimsMaterials and methodsDesign-inclusive researchResults and discussionFood waste in SMRsRestaurant operations and processesInternal factorsExternal factorsRevisiting the food waste frameworkPrototype developmentPrototype evaluationPossible digital strategies for SMRsConclusionsReferencesFOOD WASTE MANAGEMENT, TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OPTIONS: A review and future considerationsIntroductionFood waste compositionRecycling via biological treatmentRecovery via thermal treatmentDisposalEnvironmental impacts comparison of recover)' and recycling methods now and in a decarbonising economyBibliographyVI. Debates in food waste studies and looking aheadCONDUITS THAT BITE BACK: Challenging the ‘win-win’ solutions of food recalls and redistributionIntroductionConceptualising food’s reverse flowsConceptualising divestmentMethodsThe afterlife of recalled foodSecuring edibility in the afterlifeDiscussion and conclusionNotesReferencesARE YOU BUYING FOOD WASTE?: The roles technologies can play in (re)designing the food retail experienceThe epidemic of food wasteThe food and technolog)' landscape in the food retail sectorUnderstanding the current food retail experience is critical(Re)Designing consumer engagement with a digitally transformed food retail sectorScenario 1: robotics, autonomous vehicles, dark stores and the full-circle online shopping experienceThe current stateThe future stateScenario 2: the gut microbiome, digital reality and the digitally shaped in-store experienceThe current stateThe future stateScenario 3: food providence and safety, blockchain, and improved outcomes for consumers and food retailersThe current stateThe future stateConclusionReferencesA BRIEF OVERVIEW OF CURRENT FOOD WASTE RESEARCH: The what, why, how and future directionsIntroductionFirst stream: the what?Second stream: the why?Third stream: the how?The future of food waste researchConclusionReferencesCHALLENGING HEGEMONIC CONCEPTIONS OF FOOD WASTE Critical reflections from a food waste activist‘Food loss’ vs. ‘food waste’: eclipsing power relationsFood waste and the urgency of climate crisisA world of abundance and inequalityBeyond reformism: transformist strategies for the food waste movementNotesReferences
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