Crosslinguistic Influence in Singapore English: Linguistic and Social Aspects

Previous studies of Singapore EnglishReferencesYou say buay, I say tahan: The linguistic situation in SingaporeLanguages in Singaporean societyPrecolonial period (before 1819)Colonial period and period shortly after Singapore’s independence in 1965 (1819-1970S)From 1970s to present dayThe effects of government policies on language useJuggling multiple languagesNoteReferencesToolkit for unifying social and linguistic aspectsGeneral frameworkSocial aspectLanguage dominanceAttitude toward different languagesLinguistic aspectLinguistic data from sociolinguistic interviewsParallel constructionsStatistical methods - Bringing social and linguistic togetherBinary dataCount dataGrouped dataNoteReferencesMissing you: Past tense and plural markingExpressing the concepts of past and plurality in the ethnic languagesChinese and MalayTamilThe variable context: What counts and what doesn’tThe variable context for past tense markingThe variable context for plural markingPredictors examined in the statistical modelSocial and linguistic predictors for past tense markingSocial and linguistic predictors for plural markingStatistical resultsStatistical results for past tense marking on weak verbsStatistical results for past-tense marking on strong verbsStatistical results for plural markingOverall discussionNotesReferencesSemantically unique: already got oneColloquial Singapore English already, got, and oneColloquial Singapore English alreadyColloquial Singapore English gotColloquial Singapore English oneCrosslinguistic influence from ethnic languagesParallels for Colloquial Singapore English alreadyChinese sentence-final le and yijingMalay sudahTamil erkanaveParallels for Colloquial Singapore English gotChinese youMalay adaTamil irukParallels for Colloquial Singapore English oneChinese deMalay and TamilThe expansion of semantic functions for already, got, and oneParallel constructions and their influence on the synchronic use of already, got, and oneUse of already in Colloquial Singapore EnglishSyntactic position of alreadyThe use of already in negative sentencesUse of got in Colloquial Singapore EnglishUse of one in Colloquial Singapore EnglishInteraction with individual-level social factorsCrosslinguistic influence and English language proficiencyInteraction between an individual’s dominant language and attitude toward EnglishNotesReferencesAt the end of the clause: Discourse particles lah, leh, lorColloquial Singapore English lah, leh, and lorDiscourse particle lahDiscourse particle lehDiscourse particle lorExpressing agreementDiscourse structuringParallels in Chinese and MalayClause-final particles lah, leh, and lor in ChineseClause-final particle lah in MalayData analysisInteraction plots between age and ethnicityQuantitative analysis of the use of lah, leh, and lorDiscussion of the quantitative dataSpeaker styleNotesReferences
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