Multilingual Global Cities: Singapore, Hong Kong, Dubai

I. Socio-historical perspectivesThe multilingual ecologies of Singapore, Hong Kong, and DubaiIntroductionI: Socio-historical perspectivesII: Language policies and language planningIII: Societal multilingualismIV: Multilingual language acquisitionV: The Englishes of postcolonial citiesTowards a contrastive typology of multilingual ecologiesNoteReferencesThe origins of Singapore EnglishIntroductionIn the hall of office: From Raffles to Lee Kuan YewIn the living rooms: Lim Boon Keng and Song Ong SiangConclusionNotesReferencesA socio-historical approach to multilingualism in Hong Kong Kingsley Bolton and Sin-Inn LeeIntroductionThe history of Chinese languages in Hong KongCantonese in Hong KongMinority Chinese languages in Hong KongLanguage education in the colonial periodEarly colonial period (1841-1911)Missionary and government schoolsFrom the founding of Republican China until World War Two (1911-39)Late colonial Hong Kong (194J-I997)Postcolonial Hong Kong (1997—present)Chinese—English bilingualism/multilingualismSocietal multilingualism versus individual multilingualismCode-switching and code-mixing in Hong KongThe history of linguistic minorities in Hong KongConclusionNotesReferencesSocio-historical multilingualism and language policies in DubaiIntroductionSocio-historical multilingualism in DubaiMultilingual moral panic discoursesMultilingualism in the service sectorMultilingualism in the linguistic landscapeLanguage policies in DubaiEnglish language polityArabic language policyLanguages in education policyConclusionNotesReferencesII. Language policies and planningThe state of/and language planning in SingaporeIntroductionThe state of language planning theoryThe state and language planningLanguage planning and late modernity: On material calibrationConclusionNotesReferencesMultilingualism, language policy, and social diversity in Hong KongIntroductionThe sociolinguistics of Hong KongSocio-economic situationMultilingualism and governmental language policiesSocial diversity and governmental language policiesConclusionNoteReferencesMultilingualism, language management, and social diversity in the United Arab EmiratesIntroductionDemographicsThe role of EnglishThe role of ArabicLanguage planning, policies, and reformsIssues of language, culture, and identityConclusionReferencesIII. Societal multilingualismMultilingualism and multiculturalism in SingaporeIntroductionSingapore and its languagesPostcolonial SingaporeCensusSingapore after 1980The Indian communityEnglish use in the Indian communityCase Study: The Singaporean PunjabiSummary: Indian SingaporeansThe Chinese communityThe Chinese vernaculars in SingaporeCase study: Hakka, Hainanese, and HokkienEnglish usage in the Chinese communitySummary: Chinese SingaporeansThe Malay communityCase study: The use of Malay and religionEnglish usage in the Malay communitySummary: Malays in SingaporeThe contemporary sociolinguistics of Singaporean societyAcknowledgementsNoteReferencesSocietal multilingualism in Hong KongIntroductionThe historical backgroundEthnolinguistic diversity in contemporary Hong KongLinguistic diversity in Hong KongEthnic diversity in Hong KongLanguage policies and language useLanguages in educationThe languages of the Hong Kong governmentThe languages of the legal systemThe languages of employmentCantonese as a language of resistanceConclusionNotesReferencesThe linguistic and semiotic landscapes of DubaiIntroductionDubai: Megacity, world city, global city?Language theories and modern global citiesLanguage and the UAE contextLinguistic and semiotic landscapesLinguistic landscapes in DubaiAttitudesConclusionReferencesIV. Multilingual language acquisitionMultilingual language acquisition in SingaporeIntroductionMultilingual Singapore: Linguistic diversity vs. English hegemonyThe acquisition of English in multilingual SingaporeMethodologyData collection andparticipantsData analysisResultsAcquisitional background and language useHeterogeneity and homogenisation in L1 SingEDiscussion: Heterogeneity, homogenization and the role of children in language changeConclusionNotesReferencesMedium of instruction issues in trilingual Hong Kong primary schoolsIntroductionMethodologyMajor findings and discussion of the questionnaire survey in the first stageCode switching in Hong Kong primary schoolsThe origin of students and the medium of instructionThe Direct Subsidy Scheme (DSS) schoolsComparisons across the three case study schools regarding trilingual educationStudents’ acceptance of the trilingual education modelParents’ attitudes towards the trilingual education modelStudents’ views on code-switching/code-mixingTeachers’ views on code-switching/code-mixingPrincipals’ views on code-switching/code-mixingThe use of Putonghua to teach the Chinese languageStudents’ attitudes to PutonghuaParents’ attitudes to PutonghuaTeachers’ attitudes to PutonghuaPrincipals’ attitudes to PutonghuaLanguage policies and language educationConclusionReferencesMultilingualism and linguistic hybfidity in DubaiIntroductionBackground: From zero to heroSocial and linguistic inequities in multilingual DubaiSocial inequitiesLinguistic inequitiesBalancing languages in DubaiGrassroots linguistic creativity and hybridityConclusionReferencesV. The Englishes of postcolonial citiesGrammatical change and diversity in Singapore EnglishIntroductionDistinctive features of Singapore English grammarGrammaticalization and Singapore EnglishReplication by recapitulationHyper- and hypo-grammaticalizationRetentionism and colonial lag"Either in Singapore EnglishConclusionNotesReferencesHong Kong English: Structural features and future prospectsIntroductionDefining Hong Kong EnglishThe structure of Hong Kong EnglishPhonologySyntax and morphologyLexis and pragmaticsThe future of Hong Kong EnglishThe future linguistic ecology of Hong KongThe future of Cantonese and PutonghuaThe future of EnglishThe structural features of a future Hong Kong EnglishConclusionNotesReferencesMorpho-syntactic features of English as a lingua franca in Dubai and SharjahIntroductionMorpho-syntactic features of ELFMethodologyData collectionInterlocutorsData analysisMorpho-syntactic processesOmissionInsertionSubstitutionMorpho-syntactic categoriesTenseWord orderNegationNumberrd person singular -sSimplificationDiscussionMorpho-syntactic features in contrastConclusionNotesReferences
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