The Routledge Handbook on Historic Urban Landscapes in the Asia-Pacific

IntroductionThe Historic Urban Landscape approachThe discursive themes of this volumeI: Conceptualizing Historic Urban LandscapesII: Mapping tangible urban heritageIII: Safeguarding intangible urban heritageIV: Fostering sustainable urban heritageV: Localizing heritage stewardshipVI: Assessing urban heritage policiesThe future of Historic Urban Landscapes in the Asia-PacificReferencesI. Conceptualizing Historic Urban LandscapesCITIES: Palimpsests of cultural memory and their managementIntroductionDevelopment of the urban palimpsest conceptCase studies: city palimpsests and their managementHanoi, VietnamThang Long-Hanoi Citadel, VietnamVinh, VietnamHoi An, VietnamWestgarthtown, Melbourne, AustraliaSt Kilda Hill, Melbourne, AustraliaUrban palimpsests and the Historic Urban Landscape approachConclusionReferencesTHE IDEOLOGY OF THE URBAN CULTURAL LANDSCAPE CONSTRUCTIntroductionThe human side of landscape and heritagization processCultural landscapes and urbanizationHistoric Urban LandscapeThe landscape linkCharters and declarationsCase study examplesHongkou District, ShanghaiVigan, PhilippinesBang Luang, ThailandConclusionNotesReferencesCONSERVING ASIA’S VERNACULAR WATER URBANISMSIntroductionThe hiti water system of NepalThe Banaue Rice Terraces, PhilippinesThe Polders of BangladeshIndigenous water urbanisms in prospectConclusionAcknowledgementsReferencesRE-IMAGINING EURASIA: Past Flatland stories of urban and landscape heritageIntroductionCultural amnesia in the StansOn the long and short of forgotten artefacts and their ‘thick’ historiesPreservation politicsProfiles of action and inaction in the StansContradictions of urban preservation practiceConclusion: why the past (still) matters and moving aheadReferencesHUMAN ASPECTS OF HISTORIC URBAN ENVIRONMENTSIntroductionThe culture of orthodox conservation practiceThe culture and experiences of local communitiesIssues of human-centered conservation in the Asia-Pacific regionBottom-up, community-engaged practice in heritage managementTools for studying human aspects of heritageConclusionReferencesHISTORIC LANDSCAPES IN RAPIDLY TRANSFORMING ASIAN CITIES: Contestations, commodification, and learning from grounded observationsThe inheritance of the heritage: colonialism, Eurocentrism, and the reworlding of societiesPostcolonial confusions: colonialism, nationalism, and complex landscapes in AsiaMultiple meanings and contestationsUnderstanding and interventionIncorporating historic landscapes: rethinking the approachConclusionNoteReferencesII. Mapping tangible urban heritageEVOLUTION AND REPERCUSSIONS OF THE HERITAGE DESIGNATION PROCESS IN SINDH, PAKISTAN: Lessons from Karachi and ShikarpurIntroductionHeritage designation in Sindh: the beginningsRealities of the heritage designation processResponse from heritage property ownersDeficiencies in management and monitoring processIssues of heritage property stakeholdersIndividual property levelEnvironmental levelDirections for possible mitigation and problem resolutionIncentives for heritage property ownersProperty tax waiver/reliefTransfer of development rightsSpecial grants/loansFaçade easementsTechnical support and advice to heritage ownersMotivational initiatives - advocacy and awareness buildingCompetitive schemes and sponsored eventsConclusionNotesReferencesURBAN MORPHOLOGY AND HISTORIC URBAN LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT: The case of Kolkata, IndiaIntroductionTown plan analysis and space syntax: two urban morphological approachesTown plan analysisSpace syntaxA brief history of Kolkata and its built heritageModern town planning and Kolkata’s built heritageAn analysis of the morphological evolution of Kolkata’s Historic Urban LandscapeStreet gridsLand use patternsLandmarksAccessibility and visibilityMorphological interdependenciesConclusionAcknowledgementsReferencesNEW METHODOLOGIES FOR EXPLORING SENSE OF PLACE IN THE HISTORIC URBAN LANDSCAPE: Steven Cooke and Kristal BuckleyIntroductionThe Historic Urban Landscape and BallaratVRM and ‘sense of place’The methodology‘Wildness’: transitivity, porosity and rhythms‘Ordinary heritage’ and attachment to placeConclusionAcknowledgementsNotesReferencesCREATING INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR CULTURAL WORLD HERITAGE: Experiences from Central AsiaIntroductionWorld Heritage management, the HUL and Central AsiaChallenges of documenting large-scale cultural World Heritage in Central AsiaInformation management systems for cultural heritage and the Silk RoadsA Geospatial Content Management System (GeoCMS) for the Silk RoadsThe roadmapPlanning and understanding the contextDesigning and implementing the systemPopulating the systemReview after implementationGeographic Information Systems for the world heritage cities in UzbekistanConclusionNotesReferencesCONSERVATION OF HISTORIC OPEN SPACE URBAN LANDSCAPES OF CHITTAGONG, BANGLADESHIntroductionHistorical background of ChittagongChittagong’s historic growth centres and urban landscapeHistorical landscape typology of ChittagongCultural open spacesOpen spaces associated with bodies of waterGardens and parksSocial and community open spacesOpen spaces associated with tea plantationsTransportation related open spacesOpen spaces associated with religious placesCommercial public open spacesAdministrative open spacesCommemorative open spacesConservation and Management of the Historic Urban Landscape of ChittagongConclusionReferencesTHE ROLE OF NATURAL LANDSCAPES IN HISTORIC CHINESE CITIESIntroductionThe natural landscape in urban heritageA framework for the study of natural landscape in historic citiesEcological, spatial, and symbolic dimensions of natural landscapeThe ecological base of urban formThe network of urban green spacesThe viewshed and skylineThe visual characteristics of natural featuresBelief systems and other intangible cultural heritageThe natural landscape and liveabilityBiodiversity in the urban areaHeritage values of the natural landscape in historic citiesMethods for studying the natural urban landscapeNatural landscape in historic Chinese cities: some examplesWuhan, Hubei provinceLangzhong, Sichuan provinceZhao’an, Fujian provinceConservation of urban natural landscape heritageConclusionReferencesIII. Safeguarding intangible urban heritageTHE SENSORY HERITAGE OF ASIAN CITIESIntroductionSensory heritage of Sri LankaSensory characteristics of everyday spacesSensory characteristics of religious eventsThe sensory heritage: key points to considerMethodological implicationsConclusionNotesReferencesGHATS ON THE GANGA IN VARANASI, INDIA: The making of a vernacular urban landscape and its conservationIntroductionDesign grammar of the ghatsSpatial practices at the ghatsA new conservation approachHistoric palacesVisual aidsNarrative surfacesDeployable structuresConclusionAcknowledgementsNotesReferencesSAFEGUARDING RITUAL LANDSCAPE OF LIVING URBAN HERITAGES: The case of Navadurga Masked Dance Festival of Bhaktapur, NepalIntroductionLiving urban heritage of Kathmandu valleyThreats to living urban heritage and ways of its safeguardThe five classes of living urban heritage attributesNavadurga Masked Dance Festival of BhaktapurThe placeThe streetsThe physical markersThe storyThe peopleConclusionReferencesINTANGIBLE DIMENSIONS OF URBAN HERITAGE: Learning from holy cities of IndiaIntroductionFraming India’s heritage scenarioIntangible cultural heritage in IndiaReligious festivals in the urbanscape of historic-holy citiesRatnalila at Ratnanagar: an example of environmental theatre as ICHKumbha Mela, Allahabad (Prayagaraj)Pilgrimage circuits and their spatial manifestation as ICH in holy citiesPattchakroshi Yatra, VaranasiPilgrimage routes in AyodhyaShaping sustainable heritage city system in IndiaHeritage and pilgrimage inclusive development: framing HRIDAY and PRASADSustainable development and intangible heritageConclusionReferencesCULTURAL ROUTES IN CHINA: The urban heritage trails of ChongqingIntroductionCultural routes and Historic Urban LandscapesCultural route heritage of ChinaThe mountain-city trails of ChongqingChallenges facing China in navigating the concept of cultural routesConclusionAcknowledgementsNotesReferencesFINDING HUMAN WELL-BEING IN HISTORIC URBAN LANDSCAPESIntroductionThe idea of human well-beingHistoric places and human well-beingWell-being as a heritage valueImproving well-being in urban heritage managementLilong urban landscape, Shanghai, ChinaMelaka, MalaysiaDujiangyan, ChinaConclusionAcknowledgementsNotesReferencesIV. Fostering sustainable urban heritageINTEGRATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS OF THE URBAN WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTIES OF KATHMANDU AND SAMARKANDIntroductionIntegrated management systemsChanging understanding of heritage and its managementIssues in managing urban world heritage properties AsiaBukhara, UzbekistanGalle, Sri LankaLijiang, ChinaLuang Prabang, LaosMacao, ChinaMelaka and George town, MalaysiaLessons learnedThe stories of Kathmandu and SamarkandIntegrated management plan for the Kathmandu valleyManagement frameworks and processes for Samarkand - crossroad of culturesConclusionNotesReferencesERASURE AND APPEARANCE: A critical view on urban heritage management practices in China, Laos, Thailand, and VietnamIntroductionErasure and appearanceExamples from UNESCO inscribed World HeritageLuang PrabangHoi AnExamples from World Heritage tentative listsZhouzhuangChiang MaiConclusionDedicationReferencesSUSTAINABLE URBANISM AND HISTORIC URBAN LANDSCAPE CONSERVATIONIntroductionSustainable urbanismBiophilic citiesGreen urbanismEco-cityUbiquitous eco-cityZero-carbon cityDimensions of sustainable urbanismSustainable transportation and accessibilitySustainable neighbourhoods and resilient communitySustainable and greener environmentsMaking urban heritage sustainableOn the environmental frontOn the economic and social frontsConclusionReferencesREGENERATION OF A HISTORIC URBAN LANDSCAPE WITH PEDESTRIAN-ORIENTED STREETSCAPE DESIGN: The case of Deoksugung-gil Street in Seoul, South KoreaIntroductionSustainable urban regeneration and pedestrian-oriented shared streetFrom separation to sharingThe concept of shared streetCharacteristics, types, and design elements of shared streetsEffects and problems of shared streetShared street design in Historic Urban LandscapesThe case study: Deoksugung-Gil Street in SeoulAnalysis of the site conditionThe basic design conceptsDesign features of the streetStreet structurePlantingPavingNight lightingOther facilitiesSustainable aspects of Deoksugung-Gil StreetEnvironmental sustainabilitySocial sustainabilityEconomical sustainabilityIn retrospectConclusionReferencesTOWARDS SAFER AND RESILIENT HISTORIC URBAN ENVIRONMENTSIntroductionUrban heritage at riskReasons for increasing disaster vulnerability of historic cities and urban areasContribution of urban heritage to resilienceChallenges and prioritiesAgenda for actionInternational and national initiativesConclusionReferencesRURAL DEVELOPMENT A strategy for urban heritage management in the Asia-Pacific regionIntroductionQuestioning the established paradigm of urbanisationTrends in urbanisation: the Indian contextPopulation statistics and forecastsDiscrepancies in urbanisation: India compared to ChinaQuestioning the orthodox urbanisation paradigmInitiatives and technologies that support a de-centrist agendaBasic needsWaterFoodShelterThe digital and energy revolutionsInformation and communications technologiesLocalised renewable energiesLocal manufacture, global marketsQuestioning the paradigms of heritageThe monumentalisation of heritageThe distinctiveness and inclusivity of urban heritageRe-positioning the UNESCO Historic Urban Landscape initiativeConclusionNotesReferencesV. Localizing heritage stewardshipCOMMUNITY-FOCUSED URBAN REGENERATION Preserving and activating the Historic Urban Landscape in Malaysian citiesIntroductionUrban heritage of peninsular MalaysiaAdvocacy and evidence-based approachArmenian park pilot projectApplying HUL approaches beyond George TownStrengthening the planning processKey observationsConclusionNotesReferencesCOMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT IN HERITAGE CONSERVATION: The case of Kotagede, IndonesiaIntroductionHeritage conservation and management in IndonesiaHeritage regulatory systemCommunity involvement in heritage conservationCommunity involvement in urban heritageThe case of Kotagede, YogyakartaHistory of KotagedeHeritage houses in KotagedeConservation advocacy in KotagedeCommunity-based post-disaster rehabilitation and heritage restorationFormation of a collaborative organizationAssessment and documentation of heritage damagePublications on heritage and conservation guidelinesFollow-up work of Kotagede heritage rehabilitationConclusionNotesReferencesTRANSIENT HERITAGE VALUES, CONFLICTING ASPIRATIONS, AND ENDANGERED URBAN HERITAGE IN THE HISTORIC GALLE FORT, SRI LANKAIntroductionThe backdrop to recent socio-spatial transformations of Galle FortThe endangered heritage in Galle FortGentrification and heritagescapingCommunity values vs official/expert valuesRapid transformation of community valuesLocal community as agents of changeDilemma faced by heritage managersConflicting aspirations for Galle FortChallenges in managing the urban heritage of Galle FortConclusionNotesReferencesCONSERVING THE HISTORIC PORT TOWN OF TOMO, SETO INLAND SEA, JAPAN: Repositioning urban heritage in the ‘shrinking society’IntroductionSeto Inland Sea: natural beauty and developmentOrigins of the region: peace with dynamismBooming Inland Sea: challenges as national development showcaseRepositioning the status of the heritages: creating destinationsTomo: development and conservation of a historic port townLegacy of a port townDecaying port and redevelopment proposalRising concerns and persuading tactics‘World heritage litigation’: re-examining benefits of landscapeIn the fog: remaining issues and future challengesConclusionNotesReferencesUNDERSTANDING COMMUNITY-BASED HERITAGE VALUES: The case of the Tamil Brahmin settlement in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, IndiaIntroductionTamil Brahmin settlement in ThiruvananthapuramMethod of studyCore values of the settlement by the Brahmin communitySense of communitySacrality of cultural practicesValue through convenience of locationArchitecture of the settlementThreats to the settlement as viewed by the Brahmin communityShift in attitude towards the templeBureaucratic incompetencyLifestyle changesPressure of tourismAgeing settlementHeritage values and threats from the perspective of non-Brahmin communityHow community values guide urban heritage conservationConclusionNotesReferencesWURUNDJERI-AL NARRM-U (WURUNDJERI’S MELBOURNE): Aboriginal living heritage in Australia’s urban landscapesAcknowledgement of CountryIntroductionAustralia as an aboriginal landscapeWurundjeri Country yesterday and todayThe elements of Wurundjeri CountryWurundjeri Country and urban planning and heritage managementCase studies: Birrarung Marr and the Barak buildingWurundjeri todayConclusionReferencesVI. Assessing urban heritage policiesTHE HISTORIC URBAN LANDSCAPE APPROACH IN THE AUSTRALIAN CONTEXT Evolving heritage practice and city management frameworksIntroductionAustralian urban conservation practiceThe HUL approach and BallaratExpanding the implementation of the HUL in AustraliaExpanding the capacity of existing heritage listing regimes - City of Broken Hill, New South WalesHUL as a tool for advocacy and professional development - Canberra, Australian Capital TerritoryApplying a spatial lens to redesign local area studies - City of Melbourne’s Hoddle Grid projectConclusionAcknowledgementsNotesReferencesTHE MONUMENT AND THE CITY: Examining India’s legacy of monument-centric conservation in the context of the Historic Urban Landscape approachIntroductionHeritage conservation in India: monument centric approach as colonial legacyMonument conservation in the colonial Indian SubcontinentHeritage conservation in independent IndiaUNESCO’S HUL Recommendation and the historic cityExamining the Indian city as a Historic Urban LandscapeThe HUL approach: challenges and opportunities in the Indian contextHeritage tales from a historic Indian city: AhmadabadConclusionNotesReferencesHISTORIC URBAN LANDSCAPES OF CHINA: Issues of conservation and managementIntroductionChina’s transformationEvolution of historic district conservation in ChinaHeritage governance and legislation in ChinaThe national-level heritage governance and policiesThe provincial/tnunicipal level heritage governanceThe city and local level heritage governanceThe China Principles for heritage conservation praxisTowards an effective urban heritage conservation system for ChinaThe role of the recognition of historic districtsThe role of research on historic district conservation in ChinaThe role of the governance structureThe role of the intent of conservation policyThe role of conservation regulationsThe role of the agency of the public and non-governmental organisationsThe role of an effective review system for historic districtsThe role of tourism developmentConclusionAcknowledgementsReferencesCONSERVING HISTORIC URBAN CORES IN IRAN: An overviewIntroductionCultural heritage management system in IranThe institutions for heritage managementThe planning process for urban conservationEvolution of national policies for managing historic urban cores in Iranian citiesPre-1979 revolutionPost-1979 revolutionTerminology used in heritage regulationsCurrent legal framework for managing historic urban cores in IranCase study: the historic city of Yazd, a World Heritage cityReasons for the inscription of Yazd as World HeritageBoundaries of the heritage siteThe institutional structure of heritage management in YazdLaws and regulationsChallenges of heritage management in YazdSocial and economic issues in the historic core of YazdConclusionNotesReferences‘LAND IS A VERY LIMITED DEFINITION OF PLACE’: Navigating urban heritage conservation in the Pacific Island nationsIntroductionPlace, heritage and urbanization in The Pacific IslandsPlace and cultureIssues of urbanizationIssues of heritage managementLevuka, Fiji: evolving approaches to heritage values and conservationOrigin and development of LevukaHeritage conservation in LevukaEfforts in inclusive and integrated heritage managementConclusionNotesReferencesHISTORIC URBAN LANDSCAPES IN THE INDIAN OCEAN WATERS: Challenges of urban heritage custodianship for the Comoros, Maldives, Mauritius, Mayotte, Réunion, and SeychellesIntroductionLooking for urban heritage in the Indian Ocean watersNavigating urban heritage in the Indian Ocean watersPortraits of Indian Ocean Small Island Developing StatesThe Comoros IslandsMaldivesMauritiusMayotteRéunionSeychellesChallenges for urban heritage management in the Indan Ocean SIDSConclusionReferencesA TALE OF TWO CITIES: How tourism development is treated in Yangon and Macau’s urban heritage planningIntroductionYangon, MyanmarUrban conservation in YangonYangon and the Yangon Heritage TrustThe Yangon Heritage strategyTourism planning in YangonTourism, heritage planning and social responsibilityMacau Special Administrative Region (SAR), ChinaUrban heritage planning in MacauTourism planning in MacauTourism, heritage planning and social responsibilityDiscussionConclusionReferences
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