Providing Open Access to Heterogeneous Information Resources without Compromising Privacy and Data Confidentiality
It is a well-acccptcd fact that emerging trends in technology (such as the rapid growth of mobile devices and cloud computing solutions) are changing the landscape and the way business is conducted in many organizations, including in cultural heritage institutions. Digital technologies provide scholars with access to diverse and previously unavailable contents that span various formats and myriad technologies across institutions and nations. As noted by Janes (2018), the digital shift has been upon us all for some time now, and the issues and realities are getting deeper and more complex as library service continues to be transformed by the multifaceted changes already in place and others on the horizon. Although technologies such as automation, artificial intelligence, and machine learning already help to facilitate access and interactions with big data, such innovations can also increase risks. Data growth has reached explosive levels. As the legacy system simply cannot keep up with the pace of the digital transformation. Some of the concerns with big data applications relate to:
■ system security (e.g., protecting digital preservation and networked systems/ sendees from exposure to external/internal threats);
■ collection security (e.g., protecting content from loss or change, the authorization and audit of repository processes);
■ legal and regulatory aspects (e.g., personal or confidential information in the digital material, secure access, redaction).
This chapter will discuss challenges raised by concerns about ensuring longterm access to digital resources verses data confidentiality and balancing the right level of data security that addresses compliance requirements in the context of libraries and cultural heritage institutions.
Background of Open Access Movement
The digital shift has challenged the status quo and existing values, and as a result data security is a critical imperative for all institutions. According to the 2018 Thales Global Data Security and Threat Report, the rate of enterprises that are encountering data breaches grew from 21% in 2016 to 26% in 2017 and now to 36% in 2018. Digital transformation requires new data security approaches. In fact, increasingly many nations are articulating and releasing their national cyber strategies. Accordingly, the White House published a comprehensive National Cyber Strategy in September 2018 detailing how the United States current administration aims to improve cybersecurity in government, critical infrastructure and the private sector, as well as tackling cybercrime and international issues.
fhe open access (OA) movement is part of the broader “open knowledge” or “open content” movement that transforms scholarly communication. In reviewing the literature of the past few years, there is no shortage of views on the role of digital libraries and open access in facilitating digital access to knowledge by reducing barriers. Many researchers articulate a vision of a digital library environment that resonates with possibilities to create a knowledge management system that will enable scholars to navigate through these resources in a standard, intuitive, and consistent way. Many researchers including Alemneh and Hastings
(2006), and Verma (2018) agree that the new scholarly communication systems will inevitably be based on capabilities of interoperable network technology.
As cultural heritage institutions embrace such digital environments, they are facing unprecedented pressures to ensure privacy and reduce the exposure of their institutions to all kinds of data-related risks. Escalating cyberattacks, together with the insider threats for data breaches, make balancing the open access aspirations of cultural heritage institutions without compromising privacy and data confidentiality challenging. In July 2018, the US National Academies of Sciences (NAS) released a consensus report titled Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 2F‘ Century Research, which lays out a vision for a fully open global science environment, and provides the following five specific recommendations for moving from vision to implementation:
- 1. Research institutions and funders to work to create a culture that actively supports open science by better rewarding and supporting researchers engaged in open science.
- 2. Research institutions and other entities to support the development of educational and training programs to support students and researchers in adopting open science practices.
- 3. Research funders and institutions to develop policies/procedures to identify research outputs for long-term preservation and public access, and funding to be made available to support these activities.
- 4. Funders and institutions to ensure that research archives are designed and implemented according to the FAIR (findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable) principles.
- 5. The research community to work together to advance open science by design in order to advance science and help science better serve the needs of society.