Wind Power and Public Engagement: Co-operatives and Community Ownership

Citizens and renewable energy: determinants of civic engagementCommunity social acceptability of wind energyPolicy research context: energy policy in the United KingdomRenewable energy and the future electricity systemCitizenship policyCitizenshipCitizenship, the environment and energyCitizenship and pro-environmental behavioursTheoretical approaches to civic engagementRational choice modelsGeneral incentives rational action modelParticipation chain modelA rational choice model for environmental collective activismJustice-based modelsSocio-psychological modelsFinal remarks about the theories of civic engagement consideredCitizen participation in the context of sustainable energy developmentsEnvironmentally responsible behaviour and its determinantsFinal remarks about the literature on environmentally responsible behaviourReferencesWind energy acceptability—what, how and when: all the variables at stakeOpposition to wind energyAttitudinal factorsPerceived local impactsPlace attachmentEnvironmental attitudesPerceived non-local costs and benefitsEnvironmental factors of local relevancePersonal resourcesKnowledge about wind energyAffluence/deprivationEducationProximity of residence and time of surveyContextual factorsProcedural justiceTrust towards the proponentsTypes of community benefitsCommunity benefits and social acceptability of renewable energyThe co-operative model of local ownershipNon-co-operative local ownership investment schemesThe case for co-operatives, producers of green electricityA proposed framework of participation in green electricity co-operativesReferencesTesting the theory: methods and data collectionResearch questionsResearch designFirst studySecond studyNotesReferencesThe first community-owned co-operative in the UK: lessons from Westmill Wind FarmCitizenship, environmental citizenship, responsibilities and rightsCitizenshipCitizenship at different geographical levels and conflictLocal citizenship, place attachment and place identityThe co-operative modelCommunity owned or potentially divisive?CompensationAre wind farms a "high-cost situation"?Costs and benefits in the Westmill case Noise pollution, a health cost?Distress originated by the wind farm's visual impact—a possible health cost?Economic cost: the possible devaluation of propertyEconomic benefits: the revenue available to co-operative members and free services for the local communitySocio-economic statusPro-environmental attitudes and values: avoiding cognitive dissonanceNetworks in competition: using communication to magnify costs or benefitsNIMBYism, an outdated concept to define oppositionConclusions from the qualitative studyNotesReferencesA survey of four Scottish proposed wind farmsPersonal resources and demographic variablesResponse rate per siteEducationIncomeKnowledge about wind energyCommunity scheme awarenessAwareness and opinion about the locally proposed wind farmOpinion about the locally proposed wind farmAttitudinal factorsEnvironmental citizenshipPro-environmental attitudes vs pro-economy attitudesPlace attachmentPerceived local costs and benefitsHealth impactClimate change impactVisual impactImpact on the local economyImpact on property pricesNoise impactCost of electricityContextual factorsTrust and procedural fairnessInformationThe co-operative modelBivariate correlationsStatistical tests used to assess correlationsPersonal resources and demographic variablesAttitudinal factorsImpact on local tourismDependency on foreign fuelsThe "benefitscostsvalue" scaleEnvironmental citizenshipPro-environmental attitudes vs pro-economy attitudesPlace attachmentContextual factorsSummary table of correlationsMultivariate analysisFactors influencing opinions about the co-operative modelFactors influencing the decision to invest in a co-operative wind farmFinal remarksNotesReferencesA theory of social acceptability of wind farms: finding a place for the co-operative modelCan an integrated rational choice and attitudes framework explain acceptability of wind farms?The low-cost hypothesisPerceived costs and benefitsAttitudinal variablesContextual factorsThe co-operative modelPersonal resourcesFinal remarksPolicy considerationsReferencesAppendix A: the postal survey questionnaireAppendix B: the qualitative study interview guideInterview guideWarm-up questionI – Responsibility, citizenship, participationII – Community involvement, social–enterprises/co–operatives and wind farmsWind farm opposition and communityowned co-operative schemes
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