Strengthen global cooperation in technological innovation

Resource depletion is a global issue calling for cross-border cooperation. First, with the deepening of globalization, the ties among countries are becoming closer. When one country applies innovative technologies to resource use, this can have a clear impact on resource use in other countries. Shale gas and breakthroughs in renewable energy technologies are good examples, since the technologies have now been applied on a large scale in many countries. Second, many resource issues can be characterized as ‘externalities,’ with climate change being one example. One country’s greenhouse gas emissions’ impact the temperature of the climate on a global basis. No country can take care solely of itself, nor is it possible to rely exclusively on one’s own strength to resolve the problems. The signing of the Paris Agreement has made it clear that global issues require the participation of all countries in order to come up with global solutions.

We have already entered an age when it is increasingly necessaiy to rely on international cooperation in order to resolve issues relating to the use of resources. In the process of international cooperation, all countries need to bring their combined energies to the task, since countries have varying resource endowments, industrial strengths, technical levels, and innovative capacities. Countries need to complement one another, with one country’s strengths supplementing another’s weaknesses. For example, developed countries have relatively greater technological and innovative capacities, and the United States is representative in this regard, particularly in the sphere of basic research. Developing countries, with China as the main example, are in the midst of rapid industrialization and have the advantage when it comes to lowering the cost of applied science. The key to resolving the globe’s resource issues in the future will rely on combining the advantages of different countries in order to form a win-win situation for all. One might, for example, take the example of climate change and energy technologies and low-carbon technologies, and consider strengthening cooperation among different countries in order to achieve breakthroughs - in this case, most particularly cooperation between the United States and China. To do this, it will be necessaiy to improve intergovernmental cooperation in the sphere of science and technology, to sign and implement multilateral cooperation agreements, and to promote scientific and technological cooperation between developed and developing countries and between international organizations and various multilateral mechanisms. Efforts should be made to launch cooperation among governments that jointly fund R&D, that support the interaction of scientific personnel, and that improve global governance as it relates to innovation.

Carrying out the strategy for a ‘new form of urbanization ’ that is both intensive and resource-efficient

The scale and pace of urbanization in China since the start of Reform and Opening Up have been unprecedented in the history of the world. In the past, China’s urbanization has been motivated by the desire to achieve fast economic growth. This remains the case in the future since urbanization provides vast room for further growth. Since the process involves a concentration of resources, however, the unwise use of those resources leads to what are being called ‘sick-city syndromes.’ China’s strategy for a new form of urbanization involves clusters of cities as the primary form. This strategy calls for highly efficient ‘green development’ that holds to concepts of sustainable use of resources, scientific urban planning in terms of spatial layout, improved governance, and compact, conservation-oriented development.

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