McLeod, Pu, & Newman (2018)

Research topic: Utilize a political ecology perspective to examine ES of a megasport event

Method: Case study

Setting: 2008 Beijing Olympics

Area/sector of sport: Elite sport

Theoretical foundations: Bruno Latour’s object-oriented political ecology Themes, issues, trends, best practices stated, if any:

• "... argue environmental objectives are possible when environments are made public; this means environmental objects - such as skies and particulate matter - must be assembled and then articulated or, in other words, brought forward and made capable of speech” (p. 29).

Conclusions:

• Improved air quality during the Beijing Olympics was an environmental success during the Games; however, the restrictive practices utilized by the host organization and the government, and the return of poor air quality post-Games, means the case is imperfect.

Stated gaps in the literature:

• Object-oriented political ecology provides a frame to examine mega-sport events, ES, and democratic governance.

Kim & Chung (2018)

Research topic: The competing environmental discourses surrounding the 2018 PyeongChang Olympics in the Korean public sphere

Method: Case study

Setting: 2018 PyeongChang Winter Games

Area/sector of sport: Elite sport

Theoretical foundations: Ecological modernization and policy

Themes, issues, trends, best practices stated, if any:

• The environment was a key concern to government and civic actors; utilize a policy approach; focus upon the construction and contradiction of environment discourse about the Olympic Games.

Conclusions:

Public resistance is limited in the Korean public sphere; therefore, gaps arise between promised environmental policy about the Games and implementation.

Stated gaps in the literature:

• Need to further examine the monopoly of the Olympic industry and public discourse regarding public environmental discourse in relation to the Olympic Games.

Paquette, Stevens, & Mallen (2011)

Research topic: The interpretation of ES within the Olympic Movement.

Method: Multi-case study

Setting: Olympic Games host committees

Area/sector of sport: Elite sport

Theoretical foundations: Raufflet’s Corporate Environmental Management (CEM) Themes, issues, trends, best practices stated, if any:

• Some believe that regardless of all the environmental initiatives, the Olympic Games continue to cause significant environmental damage (p. 355).

Conclusions:

• Tire findings “indicated that the IOC and OCOGs corporate environmental management paradigms were incongruent” (p. 355) and indicate “how poorly the Olympic Movement meets the goals of its Agenda 21 initiatives” (p. 364).

Stated gaps in the literature:

• Examine why incongruence between IOC and Olympic Organizing Committees exists.

Millington, Darnell, & Millington (2018)

Research topic: The inter-relation of ecological modernization and global sport within the Olympic Games

Method: Case study

Setting: 2016 Rio Olympic Games

Area/sector of sport: Elite sport

Theoretical foundations: Post-political approach to environmentalism

Themes, issues, trends, best practices stated, if any:

• Examined the construction of a golf course on environmentally protected land for the purpose of the Games.

Conclusions:

• “Post-political refers to the de-politicization of the causes and solutions to global climate change, to an extent that criticism is rendered irrational and excessive in the face of these ‘common sense’ narratives" (p. 14); authors conclude environmentalism provides a forum for resistance against the negative implications of Olympic hosting.

Stated gaps in the literature:

• None stated.

The final six articles related to the research theme 2, which critically addressed the concept of environmentalism and mega-sport events. In a seminal piece, Lenskyj (1998) addressed the notion of corporate environmentalism and “greening” a Games. She specifically called out the need to ensure the 2000 Olympic Summer Games Organizing Committee, as well as other organizing committees, approach any greening initiatives as a process rather than a quick fix. Loland (2006) critically examined the ideal of sustainable development, and similar to earlier articles that questioned whether sport events can be environmentally sustainable, raised the question of whether the IOC’s ES practices are inadequate because they only address “shallow concerns”. Pentifallo and VanWynsberghe (2012) found that the IOC failed to enforce the environmental goals and Sobol (2015) stated that the IOC must act more assertively, and put legal and policy tools in place, to ensure sustainability goals are reached.

Death (2011) also found that 2010 FIFA World Cup environmental goals were not realized due to that lack of leadership. Finally, Babiak and Wolfe (2006) examined the impact of ES upon the Super Bowl for American football, and examined environmental impacts.

Babiak & Wolfe (2006)

Research topic: Organizational responsibility

Method: Case study

Setting: 2006 Super Bowl XL

Area/sector of sport: Elite sport

Theoretical foundations: Carroll’s framework of CSR, focused on the ethical and discretionary components

Themes, issues, trends, best practices stated, if any:

Organizations have responsibilities beyond profit maximization.

Conclusions:

• The NFL needs to change their “boiler plate” programs (p. 221) and to address each city’s existing issues to have a long-term impact on the city; effective tool for corporations to enhance their reputation and build brand image and customer loyalty, as well as to positively influence society.

Stated gaps in the literature:

• Measure the impact on brand image, identifying customer perceptions of CSR efforts, the motivation of CSR-related activities.

Death (2011)

Research topic: “Greening” sport

Method: Qualitative: documentary review, interviews

Setting: 2010 FIFA World Cup

Area/sector of sport: Elite sport

Theoretical foundations: n/a

Themes, issues, trends, best practices stated, if any:

• Sustainability goals must be integrated into the bid stage, coordinated between international federation and host communities, and aligned with national strategies.

Conclusions:

• Due to lack of leadership and coordination, the environmental goals were not realized.

Stated gaps in the literature:

• n/a

Lenskyj (1998)

Research topic: Corporate environmentalism

Method: Case study

Setting: Sydney Olympic Games

Area/sector of sport: Elite sport

Theoretical foundations: n/a

Themes, issues, trends, best practices stated, if any:

“Like all mega-events, international games pose many environmental problems, including waste management, energy’ consumption, transportation, materials recycling and negative impact on the natural environment” (p. 341).

Conclusions:

• “The notion of ‘the greening of our games’ as a process rather than a ‘quick fix’ is useful in the case of Olympics” (p. 343); failure of Olympic organizers to communicate extent of environmental problems will undermine community confidence in such mega-events.

Stated gaps in the literature:

• None stated.

Loland (2006)

Research topic: Sustainable development

Method: Case study

Setting: IOC

Area/sector of sport: Elite sport

Theoretical foundations: n/a

Themes, issues, trends, best practices stated, if any:

• “In Rule 2, Paragraph 13, of the Olympic Charter, it is said that one of the key roles of the IOC is to encourage and support a responsible concern for environmental issues, to promote sustainable development in sport, and require that the Olympic Games are held accordingly” (p. 144); an IOC objective is to promote awareness of a healthy and sustainable environment.

Conclusions:

• “The IOC has introduced a series of measures to meet environmental demands. However, these are so-called shallow ecological concerns more directed toward reducing the negative environmental impact of Olympic events than toward promoting ecological values” (p. 154).

Stated gaps in the literature:

• None stated.

Pentifallo & VanWynsberghe (2012)

Research topic: Environmental impacts

Method: Case study, quantitative

Setting: Rio Olympic Games

Area/sector of sport: Elite sport

Theoretical foundations: Institutional theory; isomorphism

Themes, issues, trends, best practices stated, if any:

• n/a.

Conclusions:

• Bid-organizing committees present bids with environmental plans while later abdicating responsibility. The IOC failed to enforce sustainability goals at the Rio Olympics.

Stated gaps in the literature:

• n/a.

Sobol(2015)

Research topic: Environmental impact of Olympic Games

Method: Qualitative: case study, document analysis

Setting: 2014 Sochi Olympic Games

Area/sector of sport: Olympics, mega-events

Theoretical foundations: n/a

Themes, issues, trends, best practices stated, if any:

• “As the Olympic Games ... continue to grow in size and grandeur, the demand for curbing the environmental impact becomes increasingly apparent” (p. 169).

Conclusions:

• The IOC must act more assertively and put legal and policy tools in place to enforce sustainability goals.

Stated gaps in the literature:

• n/a.

 
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