Working with School Resource Officers and Law Enforcement

Table of Contents:

Law enforcement should be an integral part of your campus BIT. Law enforcement is often onlv consulted on high-level threat cases, such as when the school

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feels an arrest is needed or appropriate. This limited application is a mistake and several leading law enforcement groups in the United States have directly' pushed back on this idea (National Threat Assessment Center [NTAC], 201S; MSD, 2019; National Threat Assessment Center, 2019). As with other vital positions on the BIT, law enforcement should be considered as a primary role and a position that attends every meeting (Randazzo & Plummer, 2009; Van Brunt, 2012; Sokolow et al., 201+; Schiemann & Van Brunt, 2018).

Law enforcement brings a unique set of skills and resources to BIT, skills not commonly found anywhere else in the campus community. Thev have access to additional databases that can assist in the information-gathering stage of BIT, such as vehicle databases, firearms ownership and arrest records. Additionally, law enforcement often brings a higher level of skill when conducting interviews and obtaining witness statements. Thev have more flexibility and can reach beyond the tr aditional walls of the school setting. These “knock and talks” with students of concern or witnesses provide much needed context and additional intel on threat cases. For instance, law enforcement will have the ability to reach an on-call judge to obtain a temporary restraining order (TRO), serve a red-flag protection order confiscating firearms or take a subject into custody for a mental health hold.They have the ability to respond after traditional business horn s to addr ess students of concern or victims.

These skills and abilities are vital for schools addressing short term after-hours needs, providing a larger context to cases and assistance diffusing a cr isis safely. Schools and colleges are limited to in-house conduct parameters such as “no contact” directives that, if violated, lead to discipline or removal from the school. A TRO, or protective order, can be enforced by law enforcement, and an immediate arrest can be made in most cases. Law enforcement brings an invaluable set of skills to the table and should be included in each BIT/CARE meeting that occurs.

Moving Forward

The next chapter takes a deeper look at intervention and management teclmiques from a case-management informed process for both the K-12 and college/uni- versity settings. This chapter provides a deeper dive into the role of the case manager addressing dangerous behavior on campus. For schools that do not have a case manager, any member on the team can be trained in intervention, and tills chapter outlines some important approaches to intervention.

References

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Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101-336, 104 Stat. 328 (1990).

AUCCCD. (2010). The Association for University and College Counseling Center Directors Annual Survey Reporting Period: September 1,200S through August 31,2009. Retrieved on December 27, 2019 from http://files.cmcglobal.com/directors_survey_2009_mn.pdf Cohen,V (1971). California, 403 U.S. 15, 1971.

Cohen, V (2007). Keeping students alive: Mandating on-campus counseling saves suicidal college students' lives and limits liability', Fordham L. Rer, 75, 30S1—3135.

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Lankford, A. (2018). Identifying potential mass shooters and suicide terrorists with warning signs of suicide, perceived victimization, and desires for attention or fame. Journal of Personality Assessmenty 5, 1—12.

MSD. (2019). Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School Public Safety Commission Report. Retrieved on December 29, 2019 from www.fdle.state.fl.us/MSDHS/CommissionReport.pdf

MSD Public Safety Commission. (2018). Cruz’s Cell Phone Content and Internet Searches. Retrieved on December 26, 2019 from http://www.fdle.state.fl.us/MSDHS/Meetings/ November-Meeting-Documents/Nov-14-1045-am-Cruz-Cell-Phone-and-Internet-John-S. aspx

National Threat Assessment Center (NTAC). (2018). Enhancing school safety using a threat assessment model: An operational guide for preventing targeted school violence. Washington, DC: United States Secret Service, Department of Homeland Security.

National Threat Assessment Center (NTAC). (2019). Protecting America's schools: A United States secret service analysis of targeted school violence. Washington, DC: United States Secret Service, Department of Homeland Security.

Randazzo, M., & Plummer, E. (2009). Implementing behavioral threat assessment on campus: A Virginia Tech Demonstration Project. Blacksburg, VA: Printed by Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Schiemann, M., & Molnar, J. (2019). A practical guide to case management in higher education. PA, King of Prussia: The National Behavioral Intervention Team Association

Schiemann, M., & Van Brunt, B. (2018). Summary and analysis of 2018 NaBITA survey data. Berwyn, PA: National Behavioral Intervention Team Association.

Sokolow, B.A., Lewis, W.S., Van Brunt, B., Schuster, S., & Swinton, D. (2014). The book on BIT (2 ed). Berwyn, PA: The National Behavioral Intervention Team Association.

Snyder, C., & Anderson, S. (2009). An examination of mandated versus voluntary referral as a determinant of clinical outcome. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 35, 278—292.

Van Brunt, B. (2012). Ending campus violence: New approaches to prevention. New York: Routledge.

Van Brunt, B. (2015). Harm to others: The assessment and treatment of dangerousness. Alexander, VA: American Counseling Association

Van Brunt, B. & Sokolow, B. (2018). The role of the counselor on the behavioral intervention team. PA, King of Prussia: The National Behavioral Intervention Team Association.

 
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