Managing Water Resources and Hydrological Systems


Section I APC: Anthropogenic Chemicals and ActivitiesAquatic Communities: Pesticide ImpactsIntroductionMeasuring Impacts on Aquatic CommunitiesAssessing Risk of Pesticide Impacts on Aquatic CommunitiesSome Examples of Pesticide Impacts on Aquatic CommunitiesReducing Risk of Pesticide Impacts on Aquatic CommunitiesRecent Advances and Outstanding IssuesConclusionsCoastal Water: PollutionIntroductionHeavy Metals and MetalloidsRadionuclidesOrganic CompoundsBiological PollutionFertilizers and PesticidesSewage EffluentsOilsMarine Debris and PlasticsNoise PollutionLight PollutionConclusionReferencesGroundwater: Mining PollutionIntroductionGroundwater ResourcesGroundwater ContaminantsGroundwater AnalysisStrategies for Remediating Contaminated GroundwatersReferencesGroundwater: Nitrogen Fertilizer ContaminationIntroductionWhy N in Groundwater Is a ProblemAgricultural Practices Contributing to Groundwater NO3Practices That Can Mitigate NO3 Leaching from AgricultureUse of Alternate Grassland/Turf ManagementConclusionsReferencesGroundwater: Pesticide ContaminationIntroductionPesticide UseAssociated Pesticide Behavior in Soils and WaterManagement of Point Sources of Groundwater ContaminationManagement of Non-Point Sources of Groundwater ContaminationFuture ResearchReferencesLakes and Reservoirs: PollutionIntroductionClassification of Lakes and ReservoirsProblems Associated with Lakes and ReservoirsSources of Lakes and Reservoir PollutionWater Quality MonitoringProtective and Restorative MeasuresConventions for the Protection of Lakes and ReservoirsConclusionReferencesMines: Acidic Drainage WaterIntroductionMine Drainage ChemistryMine Drainage MineralogyMine Drainage MicrobiologyEnvironmental Impacts of Mine DrainageDealing with Mine DrainageReferencesRivers and Lakes: AcidificationIntroductionWhat Is Acidification, and How Is It Measured?Historical PerspectivesSources of Freshwater AcidificationEnvironmental Problems Caused by Acidification of Lakes and RiversSolutions to the Problem of Freshwater AcidificationConclusionReferencesRivers: PollutionIntroductionSources of River PollutionRemoval of Pollutants in River WatersConclusionsReferencesSea: PollutionIntroductionSources of Marine PollutionConclusionsReferencesSection II COV: Comparative Overviews of Important Topics for Environmental ManagementRain Water: HarvestingIntroductionAdvantages of Rainwater HarvestingTypes of Rainwater Harvesting SystemsDesign and Maintenance of Rainwater Harvesting SystemsConclusionReferencesWater HarvestingIntroductionGeneral DescriptionWater Harvesting for Livestock Drinking WaterWater Harvesting for Domestic UseWater Harvesting for Growing of CropsOther ConsiderationsReferencesGroundwater: Saltwater IntrusionIntroductionSaltwater Intrusion Problems around the WorldMechanisms of Saltwater IntrusionMonitoring and Exploration of Saltwater IntrusionMathematical ModelingComputer ModelsCombating Saltwater IntrusionPlanning and ManagementReferencesIrrigation Systems: Water ConservationIntroductionUniformity of Water Application and Design ConsiderationsHydraulic Design of Drip Irrigation SystemsDrip Irrigation for Optimal Return, Water Conservation, and Environmental ProtectionConclusionReferencesIrrigation: ErosionIntroductionImportance of IrrigationUnique Aspects of Irrigation ErosionSurface-Irrigation ErosionSprinkler-Irrigation ErosionConclusionsReferencesIrrigation: River Flow ImpactIntroductionHydrograph ModificationBasin Irrigation EfficiencyEnvironmental ConcernsReferencesIrrigation: Saline WaterIntroductionIrrigating with Saline WatersBlending Low-Salt and Salty WatersConclusionReferencesIrrigation: Sewage Effluent UseIntroductionConcerns of Irrigating with Sewage EffluentReuse StandardsMonitoring GuidelinesReferencesIrrigation: Soil SalinityIntroductionDeleterious Effects of Salts on Plants, Soils, and WatersCauses of Salination Induced by Irrigation and DrainageIrrigation and Drainage Management to Control Soil SalinityReferencesManaging Water Resources and Hydrological SystemsIntroductionModels for Agricultural Water Consumption EstimationWater-Sustainable Agricultural AdaptationsPhysical Water Transfer or Virtual Water FlowConclusionsReferencesRunoff WaterIntroductionModification of the Stream of Wet Deposition following Contact with Substances in/on the SubstrateRoad RunoffRoof RunoffThroughfallChanges in the Composition of Samples Depending on the Moment of Sampling during Precipitation or RunoffSummaryReferencesSalt Marsh Resilience and Vulnerability to Sea-Level Rise and Other Environmental ImpactsIntroductionSalt Marsh Ecosystem CharacteristicsSalt Marsh Ecosystem ServicesSalt Marsh SustainabilityConclusionReferencesThe Evolution of Water Resources ManagementIntroductionWater Resources Management in Pre-Modern TimesColonial TimesThe Hydraulic ParadigmIWRM – Dominant Paradigm TodayAdaptive ManagementWater–Energy–Food NexusWater Management in an Increasingly Urban WorldConclusionReferencesWastewater and Water UtilitiesIntroductionWaterWastewaterConclusionReferencesWastewater: MunicipalMunicipal WastewaterCombinations of Methods for the Treatment of Municipal Wastewater (Reduction of Bod5)Methods for the Treatment of Municipal Wastewater (Reduction of the Phosphorus Concentration)Methods for the Treatment of Municipal Wastewater (Reduction of Nitrogen Concentration)Recycling of Municipal WastewaterReferencesWater Quality and Quantity: GlobalizationIntroductionGlobalization and Water ResourcesPolitical Control and Global Water Management: Policies and Political StructureGlobal Surface Water and Groundwater Concerns and Issues: IntroductionSurface Water and Groundwater ContaminationGroundwater and Aquifer DepletionGlobal Water Resource Policy: Toward a Potential FrameworkConclusionReferencesBibliographyWater: CostIntroductionOptimizing Model: Simulating a Competitive Water MarketStructuring a Price (Tariff) of WaterConclusionsReferencesWetlands: Methane EmissionIntroductionMethane Production and ConsumptionEnvironmental Controls on Methane EmissionsSoil TemperatureReferencesSection III CSS: Case Studies of Environmental ManagementAlexandria Lake Maryut: Integrated Environmental ManagementIntroductionCurrent State of Lake MaryutIntegrated Environmental ManagementConclusionsAcknowledgmentsReferencesAral Sea DisasterIntroductionAral Sea BasinIrrigation and CottonMuynak and AralskEnvironmental ProblemsHuman TragedyConclusionBibliographyChesapeake BayIntroductionDiscussionConclusionsReferencesGiant Reed (Arundo donax): Streams and Water ResourcesIntroductionBiology and EcologyEffects on Streams and Water ResourcesConclusionsReferencesInland Seas and Lakes: Central Asia Case StudyIntroductionDegradation of Lakes in the WorldThe Aral SeaKara-Bogaz-Gol BayConclusionsAcknowledgmentsReferencesOil Pollution: The Baltic SeaIntroductionMain Sources of Oil Pollution in the Baltic SeaOil Spill Observations, Statistics, and TendenciesOperational Satellite Monitoring of Oil PollutionNumerical Modeling of Oil Spill DriftProblems and SolutionsConclusionsReferencesStatus of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in the GMB PlainIntroductionBackgroundGroundwater Arsenic Contamination in West Bengal, IndiaGroundwater Arsenic Contamination in Kolkata, IndiaGroundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bihar, IndiaGroundwater Arsenic Contamination in Uttar Pradesh, IndiaGroundwater Arsenic Contamination in Jharkhand, IndiaGroundwater Arsenic Contamination in Assam, IndiaGroundwater Arsenic Contamination in Manipur, IndiaGroundwater Arsenic Contamination in Haryana, IndiaGroundwater Arsenic Contamination in Punjab, IndiaGroundwater Arsenic Contamination in BangladeshConclusionReferencesYellow RiverIntroductionDiscussionConclusionReferencesSection IV DIA: Diagnostic Tools: Monitoring, Ecological Modeling, Ecological Indicators, and Ecological ServicesGroundwater: ModelingIntroductionWhat Can Be Modeled and What For?How Are Models Built: The Modeling ProcessConclusionReferencesGroundwater: Numerical Method ModelingA Generic Numerical Method for Solving Groundwater FlowFinite Differences (FD)Integrated Finite Differences (IFD)Finite Element MethodBoundary Element MethodSimulating Solute TransportConclusionReferencesNitrogen (Nitrate Leaching) IndexIntroduction: Importance of NitrogenNitrogen Leaching Contributes to Environmental ProblemsNew Ecotechnology: Quick Tools/IndicatorsConclusionReferencesNitrogen (Nutrient) Trading ToolImportance of NitrogenNeed for Nitrogen Loss MeasurementsWater Quality Trading ProgramsPayments for Environmental Services ProgramsConclusionDisclaimerReferencesThe Accounting Framework of Energy–Water Nexus in Socioeconomic SystemsIntroductionAccounting FrameworkReferencesWater Quality: ModelingIntroductionClassification of Water Quality ModelsUses of Water Quality ModelsReferencesSection V: ELE: Focuses on the Use of Legislation or Policy to Address Environmental ProblemsDrainage: Hydrological Impacts DownstreamIntroductionHydrologic ImpactsConclusionsReferencesDrainage: Soil Salinity ManagementIntroductionDrainage ConditionsDrainage RequirementDrainage System DesignReferencesLakes: RestorationIntroductionRecultivation MethodsConclusionsAcknowledgmentsReferencesWastewater Use in Agriculture: Policy IssuesIntroductionWastewater is a Resource in Waterscarce SettingsPolicies are Needed to Ensure Wise UsePolicy Issues in Developed CountriesPolicy Issues in Developing CountriesPolicy Options Include Treatment and Non-Treatment AlternativesPolicy Interventions Should Focus on Reducing RiskMotivating Safe Practices along the Wastewater Exposure PathwayExamples of Public PoliciesConclusionsAcknowledgmentsReferencesWater: Total Maximum Daily LoadIntroductionRegulation of Point SourcesState Management of Nonpoint SourcesRole of TMDLs in Achieving Water Quality StandardsConclusionReferencesWatershed Management: Remote Sensing and GISIntroductionInventorying and MonitoringResearch and DevelopmentChallenges and Opportunities AheadConclusionsReferencesWetlands: Conservation PolicyIntroductionRelationship between Policy and Wise UseWhat Are Wetland Policies, and Are They Needed?GuidelinesConclusionsReferencesSection VI ENT: Environmental Management Using Environmental TechnologiesIrrigation Systems: Subsurface Drip DesignIntroductionSystem DesignSystem ComponentsOperation and MaintenanceConclusionReferencesRecent Approaches to Robust Water Resources Management under Hydroclimatic UncertaintyIntroductionRobust Reservoirs ManagementIntegrated FrameworkMoving ForwardConclusions and Future NeedsReferencesRivers: RestorationIntroductionMethods Used in River RecultivationConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesWaste: Stabilization PondsApplication of Waste Stabilization Pond SystemsTypes of WSPS and Their Specific UsesProcesses in WSPSDesign of WSPsReferencesWastewater Treatment Wetlands: Use in Arctic Regions 5-Year UpdateIntroductionState of Current Knowledge and PracticeA Discussion of PerformancePotential for CWsModeling Treatment WetlandsConclusionReferencesWastewater Treatment: BiologicalIntroductionWastewater Treatment OptionsBiological Treatment OptionsAerobic Biological Waste Treatment ProcessesImportant Operating Parameters in Activated Sludge SystemsAttached Growth ProcessesAnaerobic Wastewater Treatment ProcessesBiological Removal of NitrogenConclusionReferencesWastewater Treatment: Conventional MethodsPollution Problems Associated with WastewaterWastewater TreatmentUpgrading of Existing Wastewater Treatment PlantsSelection of Treatment MethodReferencesWater and Wastewater: FiltersIntroductionTreatment of Water and WastewaterFiltration ProcessTypes of Granular FiltersCartridge FilterBiofiltersBiological Aerated FiltersTrickling FiltersMembrane FiltrationUltrafiltrationReverse Osmosis SystemIntegrated Membrane SystemWater and Wastewater PurificationEco-Filtration SystemsConstructed WetlandsSoil BiotechnologyPotential and Scope of Eco-TechnologySoil Scape FilterGreen Bridge TechnologyOther Emerging Filtration TechniquesConclusionReferencesWetlands: Constructed SubsurfaceIntroductionTechnology BackgroundHybrid SystemsUse for Various Types of WastewaterConclusionsAcknowledgmentsReferencesWetlands: Sedimentation and Ecological EngineeringProblems of Sedimentation in WetlandsParticle Types and Sedimentation Processes in WetlandsEcological Engineering Solutions to SedimentationConclusionsReferencesWetlands: Treatment System UseHow Do Wetlands Work?Treatment Wetland TypesFree-Water vs. Submerged-Bed WetlandsTreatment ProcessesDesign ConsiderationsVSB WetlandsFWS vs. VSB SystemsOperation and MaintenanceConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesSection VII NEC: Natural Elements and Chemicals Found in NatureCyanobacteria: Eutrophic Freshwater SystemsFactors Leading to Cyanobacterial DominanceConsequences of Cyanobacterial BloomsMonitoring and Management of Algal BloomsConclusionsReferencesEstuariesIntroductionOrigins of the Problems of EstuariesEnvironmental Assessment of Estuarine EcosystemsNew ToolsHow Can We Solve the Problem?ConclusionsReferencesEverg ladesIntroductionEverglades Water Management—Past, Present, and FutureConclusionReferencesWater Quality: Range and Pasture LandIntroductionPhysical CharacteristicsChemical CharacteristicsBiological CharacteristicsConclusionsReferencesWater: DrinkingIntroductionInorganic Components and Pollutants of Drinking WaterOrganic Pollutants of Drinking WaterCharacteristics of Some Water Bacteria and Pathogens in Drinking WaterMicrobiological Research Methods for Analysis of Drinking WaterReferencesWater: SurfaceIntroductionPesticide UsePesticide Transport and Patterns of OccurrenceEffects of PesticidesGaps in KnowledgeReferencesWet landsIntroductionWetland DefinitionsWetland TypesExtent of WetlandsReferencesSection VIII PRO: Basic Environmental ProcessesEutrophicationEutrophication ProblemGrowth of PhytoplanktonSolutions to the Eutrophication ProblemReferencesWastewater Use in AgricultureIntroductionCrop Selection and DiversificationIrrigation ManagementSoil- and Health-based InterventionsConclusionsReferencesWetlands: BiodiversityRole of HydrologyA Landscape PerspectiveWetland FloraWetland FaunaConclusionsReferencesWetlands: Carbon SequestrationIntroductionCarbon Sequestration with Primary ProductionCarbon Sequestration in SoilsImpact of Human Activities on Carbon StorageCreation of Wetlands to Sequester CarbonConclusionsReferences
 
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