Achieving sustainable management of tropical forests

PrefaceChallenges faced by tropical forestsAn overview of tropical forest formationsIntroductionThe tropics: defining the enabling conditions for tropical forestsClassifying tropical forest formationsStructure and diversity of tropical forest ecosystemsConclusionReferencesPressures on tropical forests: agriculture, trade and illegalityIntroductionTropical forests and agricultureLogging and tropical forestsIllegal logging and tradeTackling illegal loggingTackling deforestation in agricultural supply chainsConclusionWhere to look for further informationReferencesNarratives on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and tropical forestsIntroductionThe use of narratives as an analytical tool in forest management and policy analysisThe three narratives about the SDGs and forestsThe SDGs and forest narratives and tropical forestsConclusionsReferencesNational governance and tropical forests: key challengesIntroductionCompeting definitions and characterisations of forest governanceThe impact of poor forest governanceGlobal solutions to forest governanceOwnership and forest governanceCase study: governance regimes in the Congo BasinConclusionsFuture trendsReferencesAnnex 1 Diagnosis of tropical forest governance weaknessesAnnex 2 Examples of alleged abuses in tropical forest governanceClimate change and tropical forestsIntroductionTropical forests and the global carbon cycleOther climate effects of tropical forestsChanging climate in the tropicsClimate change impacts on tropical forestsFuture tropical forest management: mitigation and adaptation to climate changeFuture trendsConclusionWhere to look for further informationReferencesEcosystem services provided by tropical forestsNew types of products from tropical woodIntroductionTropical forest wood productsPlantation forest resourcesNon-wood forest products: bamboo and rattanPlantation timber product development and wood speciesPlantation biomass and waste: oil palm and kenafPlantation biomass and waste: sugarcane and riceDevelopments in wood productsBiomass energy and co-generationWood-based biofuelsConclusionsWhere to look for further informationReferencesNon-timber forest products from tropical forestsIntroductionNon-timber forest products (NTFPs) and rural livelihoodsEcological impact of non-timber forest products (NTFPs)Socioeconomic benefits of non-timber forest products (NTFPs)ConclusionWhere to look for further informationReferencesEcosystem services delivered by tropical forests: regulating services of tropical forests for climate and hydrological cyclesIntroductionForest-climate interactionsForests in the carbon cycleClimate change mitigation in the forestry and timber sectorForests in the water cycle (regional scale)Summary and future trendsWhere to look for further informationReferencesBiodiversity and ecosystem services in tropical forests: recent findings and implications for sustainable forest management (SFM)IntroductionThe importance of tropical forests as repositories of biodiversityRecent research on biodiversity and ecosystem services from tropical forestsThe main threats to tropical forest biodiversitySynthesis and conclusionWhere to look for further informationReferencesAmenity and recreation values of tropical forests: an ecosystem services perspectiveIntroductionThe importance of ecosystem servicesOverexploitation of forest ecosystem services (ESS)Valuing recreational and amenity services of tropical forestsInnovative approaches to recreation and amenity ESSImproving forest-based recreation activities: options and challengesConclusionsReferencesManagement structures to support sustainable forest management (SFM)Defining sustainable forest management (SFM) in the tropicsIntroductionEvolving concepts of sustainabilityAppropriate scales for assessment of SFMSFM trade-offs at different scalesDefining terms in SFMLand-use types in SFMChallenges for SFM in the tropicsWays forwardReferencesImproving operating standards in sustainable forest management of tropical forests in AfricaIntroductionDeforestation in AfricaThe need for sustainable forest management in AfricaImproving operating standards in sustainable forest managementConclusionWhere to look for further informationReferencesThe role of certification schemes in sustainable forest management (SFM) of tropical forestsIntroductionThe need for changeResponses to the introduction of forest certificationThe development of forest certificationRates and spread of certificationAssessing the impact of forest certificationConclusionWhere to look for further informationReferencesTenure and management rights in tropical forestsIntroductionTrends in 33 lowand middle-income countries (LMICs) in Africa, Asia and Latin AmericaRegional trendsImplicationsConclusionsReferencesCommunity-based management of tropical forests: lessons learned and implications for sustainable forest managementIntroductionThe evolution of community-based forest management (CBFM)How does CBFM work?Community forestry and livelihoodsFactors affecting the success or failure of CBFMDesigning and implementing CBFMHow CBFM can be integrated into international forest policyConclusionWhere to look for further informationReferencesMonitoring and management techniques in sustainable forest management (SFM)New techniques for assessingand mapping tropical forestsIntroductionInventory objectivesRemote sensing to detect changes in land useRemote sensing to detect logging activities and forest degradationassessments for forest inventoriesUncertainty assessment and error analysisPlanning a forest inventoryData collection, analysis, and reportingFuture trendsWhere to look for further informationReferencesAdvances in monitoring and reporting forest emissions and removals in the context of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)IntroductionSummary of UNFCCC FREL/FRLsSummary of REDD+ results reported to the UNFCCCOutlook: what’s next on MRV for forests?ReferencesUnderstanding and exploiting genetics of tropical tree species for restoration of tropical forestsIntroductionMethods to measure genetic diversity: field trials and tree improvementMethods to measure genetic diversity: molecular markersDNA barcodingGenetic studies to investigate reproductive systemsCase studies: figs, dipterocarps, teak and eucalyptsSummary and future trendsWhere to look for further informationReferencesPathogens in tropical forests: diversity and managementIntroductionRoot diseasesStem diseasesWilt diseasesFoliage pathogensVirus diseasesNematodesAlgae and parasitic plantsDisease managementWhere to look for further informationAcknowledgementsReferencesThe role of agroforestry in sustainable forest management (SFM) of tropical forestsIntroductionExtent and biodiversity of shifting cultivation landscapesThe productive function of shifting cultivation landscapesCarbon capture in shifting cultivation landscapesImplications of intensifying shifting cultivationSummaryAcknowledgementsWhere to look for further informationReferencesSFM of different types of tropical forestForest landscape restoration (FLR) of tropical forestsIntroductionImplementing forest landscape restoration (FLR)Case studiesChallenges and opportunities in taking FLR forwardConclusionWhere to look for further informationReferencesSustainable management of tropical plantation forestsIntroductionSustainability issues in tropical forest plantations: productivity and nutrient cyclesSustainability issues in tropical forest plantations: biodiversity conservationSustainability of ecosystem services provision in tropical plantationsSustainability of social impacts of tropical forest plantationsMeasures to achieve sustainable tropical forest plantations managementConclusionsWhere to look for further informationReferencesSustainable forest management (SFM) of tropical moist forests: the Congo BasinIntroductionLogging concessions, the land and management plansLand zoningSustainable forest management plansFrom ‘nesting dolls’ to improved policiesImproving processes and institutionsFrom theory to practiceConclusionsReferencesSustainable forest management (SFM) of tropical moist forests: the case of the Brazilian AmazonIntroductionRegulation of Brazilian forest managementGood forest-management practices in Amazonian BrazilPrivate and community-based forest management in Amazonian BrazilSustainable forest management in Amazonian Brazil: challenges and strategiesConclusionsWhere to look for further informationReferencesSustainable management of African dry forestsIntroductionCharacteristics of dry forestsDistribution of dry forests in AfricaThe importance of dry forests to local communitiesKey issues in managing African dry forestsConclusionsList of abbreviationsWhere to look for further informationReferencesThe FutureAchieving sustainable management of tropical forests: overview and conclusionsIntroduction: sustainable forest management (SFM)Importance of tropical forest ecologyForests, climate and climate changeForest loss and degradationForest products and ecological servicesCommunity-based forest management (CBFM) and SFMSFM and the United Nations sustainable development goals (SDGs)Wood products, plantations and SFMMonitoring and measuring for SFMShifting cultivation and SFMForest landscape restoration (FLR)SFM in major tropical regionsConclusionsReferences
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