I. State

Introduction to Part I

Part I of the book takes the state perspective on the challenges related to entrusting records to the cloud. It starts by examining the relationship between established records management practice and reliable open government data. The key question to ask is what it takes for open data to be considered as verifiable sources of evidence so that citizens can trust the information provided by government. Major barriers to releasing more open government data are identified. The policies and legislation regulating digital preservation in the cloud, specifically the aspects of integrity, location of the data, its portability and ownership, can remove many ambiguities and business insecurity if developed by teaming up records managers and archivists with IT professionals. Assessment of legislation regulating cloud services show that the risks of entrusting records to the cloud are not in focus. Additional insight into this is given through the four case studies on the cloud contracts signed between public administrations and private cloud service providers. However, even if the legal regulations and policies are well formulated and in place, for information governance to manage information as assets this would not be enough - it requires a multidimensional approach additionally involving strategic management, records management, information security, ICT, and ethics. Therefore, this part discusses how information governance is defined and implemented in public administrations and how it could be used efficiently to improve e-services. Governmental e-services come in great variety - for citizens, businesses, and for other public administration e-services. Their development, aligned with the once-only principle, can positively influence efficiency of the developed e-services and communication between public administration, citizens, and businesses. It will be argued that not only should the process of their development take both a cooperative and collaborative approach, but that the mode of inter- organisational collaboration on e-government plays an important part. This is especially important in the context of e-services interconnection, interoperability, development of single sign-on (SSO) systems, trusted exchange of identification and authentication credentials, and transborder data (information, records) flow. If this path is taken, significant benefits can be realized. The financial ones, in the context of using cloud storage services, are neither easy nor straightforward to estimate. Therefore, models for digital storage costs are analyzed and their use among the records professionals is explored. Finally, this part discusses the level of trust that public administration, citizens, and businesses can have in a cloud service provider or, consequently, in the implemented and interconnected cloud-based e-services.

This part brings together research results based on the investigation of the relevant body of literature, policies and legal regulations, interviews, assessments using checklists, and case studies from Croatia, Italy, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom (UK), portraying the current situation in information governance, records management, storage, and archiving in the cloud from the perspective of public administration, i.e. the state.

The role of records managers and archivists in open government

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