Outline of the book
The argument of the book is built through eight chapters. The present chapter presented the puzzle of the study, the main argument, and the design used to address it. Chapter 2 introduces the reader to the history and background of CasaPound, while also locating the group in the context of the Italian far right. Subsequently, five empirical chapters address hybridization in ideology, internal structure, activism, mobilization, and political communication, with the goal of uncovering their impact on the attention and visibility acquired by CPI over the years. The volume then concludes with a chapter where these separate factors are brought together to assess how hybridization relates to the high profile of CPI in the Italian public sphere, thinking about possible implications for research on change and continuity in contemporary extreme-right politics.
1 The book expands and updates material from Albanese et al. (2014), reproduced with permission. While the volume is the result of the joint work of the four authors, different authors have been in charge of the various chapters: Chapter 1 (Catcrina Froio and Pietro Castelli Gattinara); Chapter 2 (Pietro Castclli Gattinara); Chapter .3 (Matteo Albanese, Catcrina Froio, Pietro Castelli Gattinara); Chapter 4 (Caterina Froio and Pietro Castclli Gattinara); Chapter 5 (Caterina Froio); Chapter 6 (Pietro Castelli Gattinara); Chapter 7 (Giorgia Bulli, Caterina Froio, Pietro Castelli Gattinara); Chapter 8 (Caterina Froio and Pietro Castelli Gattinara).
- 2 The expression first appeared in an article titled II Fascismо del Terzo Millennia riparte dalla lolla per la Casa [Third Millennium Fascism restarts from housing], published by the newspaper II Giornale in July 2004.
- 3 See: Kai Arzheimer, ‘The Eclectic, Erratic Bibliography on the Extreme Right in Western Europe’, available at: www.kai-arzheimer.com/extreme-right-western- europc-bibliography (accessed 10/09/2018).
- 4 The Notivelle Droile (New Right) was a neo-conservative French intellectual movement. It was born in the late 1960s around the cultural association GRECE (Grottpe- menl de Recherche el d’I-Hides pour la Civilisation Europeenne) and the writer Alain de Benoist. The Notivelle Droile is known for its ‘cthnopluralist’ ideological doctrine (see section 3.1) and its attempts to re-elaborate from a right-wing perspective themes considered typical of the left-wing culture (Taguieff 1998; Bar-On 2012; Capra Casadio 2014).
- 5 Demand-side explanations, in fact, have been used to examine voting behaviour and citizens’ attitudes, recognizing the individual characteristics breeding far-right support. External supply-side explanations focus instead on the environment where the far right operates, and single out the contextual drivers of far-right support (Arzheimer 2009).
- 6 Moreover, we limit the analysis to quality newspapers because these have been found to report more extensively on political matters than other types of outlet (Druckman and Parkin 2005).
- 7 In addressing this broad wealth of raw data, we were aware that different types of sources convey distinct information. While interviews with activists may not be representative of CasaPound’s official stances, information that is representative of formal group positions was provided by party programmes, interviews with high-ranking officials, and the ‘party literature’.
- 8 We integrated the original topic list with the category ‘Ideology’. This accounts for quasi-sentences that did not have a specific policy content, but referred to general ideological beliefs and/or commemorations of historic events. We also broadened the scope of the CAP category ‘Government operations’ to include quasi-sentences focusing on the (dis)functioning of democratic institutions, and political accountability of parties and their leaders.
- 9 See the codebook of the CAP project (Baumgartner et al. 2019), available at: https:// www.comparativeagendas.net/pages/master-codebook (accessed on 14/08/2017).
- 10 We thank Flavia Albanese (Iuav University of Venice) and Prof. Marco Cremaschi (Sciences Po CEE) for their precious assistance with the maps.
- 11 By ‘open participant observation’ we mean the qualitative research method by which the researcher participates overtly for a relatively long time in the group she is observing, in its natural environment. This method has made it possible to establish a relationship of interaction with CPI’s groups members, in order to describe their actions, understand their motives as well as the meaning they attribute to their actions and practices. To immerse ourselves in CPI’s spaces and locations did not imply the abandonment of our value orientations which in fact were openly communicated to the interviewees upon their request (Avanza 2008; Blee 2007; Brewer 2000).