Appendix 4: The coding of election manifestos

We examine the content of CPI’s electoral supply by using content analysis of party manifestos at general elections (Laver et al. 2003). CPI ran for general elections only in 2013 and 2018. As we are interested in policy emphasis rather than issue positions, we rely on the coding scheme of the Comparative Agendas Project available here: This coding scheme is specifically designed to capture policy attention (Baumgartner et al. 2019). Data are available for duplication upon request to the authors.


  • 1 For a similar approach see Hanggli and Kricsi’s work on input—output strategies of agenda building (2010).
  • 2 Newspaper data were gathered using the Factiva database. Mainstream quality papers report more extensively on political matters than other outlets (Druckman and Parkin 2005). While the tone and the logics of information production may change according to the political orientation of a newspaper, there is no significant difference in the likelihood of coverage (Koopmans 2004) as demonstrated in other publications using both centre-right and centre-left oriented quality newspapers (Bouron and Froio 2016; Castelli Gattinara and Froio 2018a).
  • 3 Claims-making as a form of political behaviour implies ‘the purposive and public articulation of political demands, calls to action, proposals, criticisms, or physical attacks, which, actually or potentially, affect the interests or integrity of the claimants and/or other collective actors’ (Koopmans et al. 2005).


Baumgartner, F.R. et al.(eds). 2019. Comparative Policy Agendas: Theory, Tools, Data. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bouron, S., and C. Froio. 2016. ‘Entrer En Politique Par La Bande Mediatique’. Presented at the Global Moral Spectatorship.

Castelli Gattinara, P., and C. Froio. 2018a. ‘Quand les identitaires font la une’, Revue fran- faise de science politique 68(1): 103—119.

-. 2018b. ‘Getting “Right” into the News: Grassroots Far-Right Mobilization and

Media Coverage in Italy and France’, Comparative European Politics 1—21.

Druckman, J.N., and M. Parkin. 2005. ‘The Impact of Media Bias: How Editorial Slant Affects Voters', Journal of Politics 67(4): 1030—1049.

Hanggli, R., and H. Kriesi. 2010. ‘Political Framing Strategics and Their Impact on Media Framing in a Swiss Direct-Democratic Campaign’, Political Communication 27(2): 141—157.

Hutter, S. 2014. ‘Protest Event Analysis and Its Offspring’, Methodological Practices in Social Movement Research. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 335-67.

Koopmans, R. 2004. ‘Movements and Media: Selection Processes and Evolutionary Dynamics in the Public Sphere’, Theory and Society 33(3-4): 367—391.

Koopmans, R., and P. Statham. 1999. ‘Political Claims Analysis: Integrating Protest Event and Political Discourse Approaches’, Mobilization: An International Quarterly 4(2): 203-221.

Koopmans, R. et al.2005. Contested Citizenship: Immigration and Cultural Diversity in Europe. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Laver, M. et al.2003. ‘Extracting Policy Positions from Political Texts Using Words as Data’, American Political Science Review 97(2): 311-331.

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