Leadership Drives Cultural Transformation

In Lion Nathan’s view the primary determinant of the culture of a team is the leadership style of its leaders. Lion Nathan developed and delivered its own leadership development program based upon four levers:

■ A motivating sense of purpose

■ Talent management

■ Future focus

■ Creating a high-performance culture, using the Organizational Culture Inventory(OCI®) template[1] [2]

Human Synergistics Measurement Instruments

Organizational culture[2] is defined as “The behavioral norms and expectation, shaped in part by shared values and beliefs, that guide organizational members in how they should approach their work and interact with one another.” The Organizational Culture Inventory® (OCI®)1 was used to quantify these “behavioral norms and expectations.”

Styles toward the top of the circumplex (12 styles in a circle) reflect behavioral expectations directed toward higher-order needs for growth and satisfaction (also called Constructive styles). Those toward the bottom of the circumplex illustrated in Figure 5.1 reflect behavioral expectations that focus on meeting lower-order needs for security (also called Defensive styles).

Organizational Culture Inventory® (OCI®)

Styles located on the right side of the circumplex (1 o’clock to 6 o’clock) reflect expected behaviors directed to interactions with people. Styles located on the left side (7 o’clock to 12 o’clock) reflect expectations regarding task- related behaviors (Figure 5.1).

The circumplex can further be divided into three parts:[2]

■ Constructive Cultures (11 o’clock to 2 o’clock)

Constructive cultures in which members are encouraged to interact with others and approach tasks in ways that will help them to meet their higher-order satisfaction needs (including Achievement (style 11

Figure 5.1 Organizational Culture Inventory® (OCI®) of Lion Nathan represented in a circumplex (situation 1998). Lion Nathan - Actual Culture 1998.

o’clock), Self-Actualizing (style 12 o’clock), Humanistic-Encouraging (style 1 o’clock), and Affiliative (style 2 o’clock) cultural norms).

■ Passive/Defensive Cultures (3 o’clock to 6 o’clock)

Passive/Defensive Cultures in which members believe they must interact with people in defensive ways that will not threaten their own security (includes Approval (style 3 o’clock), Conventional (style 4 o’clock), Dependent (style 5 o’clock), and Avoidance (style 6 o’clock) cultural norms).

■ Aggressive/Defensive Cultures (7 o’clock to 10 o’clock)

Aggressive/Defensive Cultures in which members are expected to approach tasks in forceful ways to protect their status and security (includes Oppositional (style 7 o’clock), Power (style 8 o’clock),

Competitive (style 9 o’clock), and Perfectionistic (style 10 o’clock) cultural norms).

Cultural Transformation is Done in Five Phases:

Phase 1: Pre-test Phase 2: Test Phase 3: Action Phase 4: Re-test

Phase 5: Review and lessons learned

Life Styles Inventory™ (LSI 1 and LSI 2)

The Life Styles Inventory ™ (LSI) is an integral part of Human Synergistics’ multi-level diagnostic system[5] [6].

■ LSI 1 Self-description

LSI 1 is a self-report inventory designed to measure an individual’s thinking styles and self-concept. Thinking styles are viewed as a combination of values and needs (both security and satisfaction) and concerns (for people versus tasks), which lead to behaviors and have consequences for the individual’s perceptions of his/her relations to the environment. These factors contribute to self-concept - the intellectual, social, psychological, and physical image that people have of themselves. Thinking styles thus have consequences for job performance, the quality of interpersonal styles, leadership effectiveness, and the individual’s ability to cope with stress.

■ LSI 2 Description by Others

The LSI 2 questionnaire is completed by other people who know the focal individual well. The descriptions provided by others are combined and profiled on a circumplex (LSI 2 average) which can be compared to the individual’s self-report profile (LSI 1). Given that the responses of others are based on their observations, the LSI 2 tends to focus more heavily on behavioral styles than thinking styles. The two profiles are often inconsistent.

The LSI is critical for organizational change given that cultural transformation generally requires personal development on the part of members at all levels of the organization. The LSI 1 instrument measures leaders’ styles. Their leadership styles can have a tremendous impact on the company culture and even the achievement of results (business results, motivation of employees, customer satisfaction, and even society results).

Readers who are interested in more details about the Human Synergistic methodology can consult the book In Great Company or the Human Synergistics website.

  • [1] * Organizational Culture Inventory? is a registered trademark of Human Synergistics International.OCI® Circumplex from Robert A. Cooke and J. Clayton Lafferty, Organizational Culture Inventory?,Human Synergistics International. Copyright © 1987-2015. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission. www.humansynergistics.com. ' Cooke, R. A. and Szumal, J. L. Measuring Normative Beliefs and Shared Behavioral Expectations inOrganizations: The Reliability and Validity of the Organizational Culture Inventory®, PsychologicalReports, 72, (1993) pp. 1299-1330. Cooke, R. A. and Lafferty, J. C. Organizational Culture Inventory® (OCI®), Human SynergisticsPlymouth, MI, (1987).
  • [2] OCI® style names and descriptions are from Robert A. Cooke, Ph.D. and J. Clayton Lafferty, Ph.D.,Organizational Culture Inventory®, Human Synergistics International, Plymouth, ML Copyright ©1987-2020. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission.
  • [3] OCI® style names and descriptions are from Robert A. Cooke, Ph.D. and J. Clayton Lafferty, Ph.D.,Organizational Culture Inventory®, Human Synergistics International, Plymouth, ML Copyright ©1987-2020. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission.
  • [4] OCI® style names and descriptions are from Robert A. Cooke, Ph.D. and J. Clayton Lafferty, Ph.D.,Organizational Culture Inventory®, Human Synergistics International, Plymouth, ML Copyright ©1987-2020. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission.
  • [5] * Jones, Quentin, Dunphy, Dexter, Fishman, Rosalie, Larne, Margherita, and Canter, Corinne, In Great Company: Unlocking the Secrets of Cultural Transformation, A Human SynergisticsPublication, (2006). Human Synergistics Australia (Sydney) and Human Synergistics New Zealand(Wellington).
  • [6] Lafferty, J. C. Lifestyles Inventory™ (LSI), Human Synergistics International Plymouth, MI, (1987).The Life Styles Inventory™: A Brief Introduction, Part I—Data, Words, Causes, and Effects https://www.humansynergistic.s.com/resources/content/2016/12/07/the-life-styles-inventory-a-brief-introduction-part-i-data-words-causes-and-effects accessed April 23, 2020.t www.humansynergistics.com.
 
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