Bioarchaeology: An Introduction to the Archaeology and Anthropology of the Dead

The discipline of bioarchaeologyIntroduction: what is bioarchaeology?What constitutes human remains?The development of the disciplineA focus on measurement and classificationInterest in paleopathologyA revival of mortuary analysisChanging perspectives: an integrated biocultural approachEthics and politics in bioarchaeologyRepatriation: humanistic and scientific issuesInternational laws on human remainsU.S. laws on human remainssummaryKey concepts and termsIn the field: discovery and recoveryHuman? How old?The archaeological recordThe nature of archaeological evidenceTaphonomyDiscovery of human remainsKnown sites and locationsAccidental discoveriesRecovery of human remainsExcavation methodsRecordationPost-excavation handlingsummaryKey concepts and termsIn the laboratory: description and basic analysis of human remainsLaboratory treatmentSkeletal remainsBones of the skeletonMeasuring and describing the skeletonMetric traitsNonmetric traitsBone development and growthTypes of boneRemodelingDeossificationBone histologyDentitionDescribing teethMetric and nonmetric dental traitsBasic analysis of skeletal remainsDetermining the minimum number of individualsEstimating age at deathEstimating sexEstimating statureEstimations of ancestrySoft tissue and other remainsHairFingernails and toenailsPaleofecesDating human remainssummaryKey concepts and termsTreating the dead: the funerary systemConcepts of the bodyCultural constructs of deathThe funerary systemThe funerary system I: pretreatment of the livingThe funerary system II: the mortuary processPurposeful mummiesPreserved body partsFunerary system III: commemorative behaviorsummaryKey concepts and termsPaleopathology I: metabolic, nutritional, and occupational stressPaleopathologyStressMetabolic stressNutritional stressOccupational and activity stressDetecting general stresssummaryKey concepts and termsPaleopathology II: disease and abnormalitiesDiseaseSkeletal pathology of diseaseCancers and tumorsInfectious diseaseDegenerative disordersDental pathologiesSoft tissue pathologyInfectious disease in soft tissuesParasitic infectionCongenital abnormalitiesCongenital syndromessummaryKey concepts and termsTraumaTraumaTypes of physical traumaViolenceCannibalismHuman sacrificeExecutionMedical traumaTissue modificationsummaryKey concepts and termsSpecialized studiesBiomolecular studiesOrganic residues: blood, lipids, and proteinsAncient DNAIsotopic analysisBiodistance studiesImagingRadiographyScanningsummaryKey concepts and termsInterpretive theory and data integrationTheoretical approaches in interpretationMiddle-range theoryResearch designCemetery organizationGrave goods and statusIntegration of data setsConstructing a biocultural profileConstructing a bioethnographyIssues in analysissummaryKey concepts and termsLives once lived: the anthropology of the deadAddressing anthropological questionsExploring social organizationExploring political systemsExploring religion and ritualExploring sex and genderExploring inequalityThe transition to agriculturePaleodemographyThe osteological paradoxThe health of past populationsMedical careDisability and community health careProstheticssummaryKey concepts and termsContemporary application: forensic anthropologyGoals in forensic anthropologyDiscovery and recoveryIdentification of remainsIdentifying manner and cause of deathTime since deathLegal issuesHomicide casesMass death eventsExtralegal killings and mass gravesRecovery of war deadsummaryKey concepts and termsFigure credits
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