Authoritarian Gravity Centers: A Cross-Regional Study of Authoritarian Promotion and Diffusion

I. ConceptAutomatization and its Pull and Push Factors - A Challenge for Comparative ResearchIntroductionConceptualizing Comparative Research on Autocratization: Theoretical, Conceptual, and Methodological ImplicationsConceptualizing External Mechanisms: Discussing Autocracy Promotion and DiffusionThe Design of the Inter-Regional Analysis - Structure of the BookNotesReferencesConceptualizing Authoritarian Gravity Centers Sources and Addressees, Mechanisms and Motives of Authoritarian Pressure and AttractionIntroductionThe International Dimension of AutocratizationAuthoritarian Gravity Centres (AGCs): The ConceptAGCs and Regional HegemonsMotives of AGCsModes of Authoritarian InfluenceStructural Variables and the Arenas of InteractionTracing Promotion and DiffusionConclusionNotesReferencesII. Empirical Studies on Authoritarian Gravity CentersKingdom of Gravity: Autocratic Promotion and Diffusion in Saudi ArabiaApproaching the Arabian Peninsula via the Concept of AGCSaudi Arabia’s Gravitational Force: Uncovering Mechanisms of Promotion and DiffusionThe Kingdom Seizes Control over the Arabian PeninsulaThe Power of Incentives and Autocratic Promotion through Hard LeverageBehind the Scenes: The Power of Subtle LeverageEmulation: It Is Always Better TogetherDemonstration Effects: Mimicry at PlaceThe Temptation of Authoritarianism: Explaining the Motives of the AGC and TSMotives of the AGC to Exert InfluenceUncovering the Promotion SideUncovering the Diffusion SideAttraction and Reaction: The Target States and Autocratic DiffusionReactions to Saudi Promotion EffortsReactions to Saudi Diffusion EffortsConclusionNotesReferencesDemocratic Erosion and Autocratization in Latin America: The Role of Venezuela as an Authoritarian Gravity CenterIntroductionVenezuela as Protagonist of Democratic Erosion in the Region - Defining the SampleExplaining the How: Empirical Analysis of Venezuela’s Autocratic Influence in the RegionHard LeverageExporting Media ControlSponsoring of Bolivarian CandidatesSubtle LeverageProviding Advice for the Constitutional Reform and Power ConcentrationSecuring Ideological Allegiance within and through ALBAEmulationSeeking Advice for the Process of Constitutional RewritingCopying Measures for National and Regional DefenseDemonstration EffectsAdopting Chavez’s Ideational ToolboxOrienting toward Venezuela’s Methods of Securing Communicational HegemonyCopying Techniques of Pinholes against Independent Media CoverageExplaining the Why: Uncovering the Motives for Autocracy Promotion and Adoption of Autocratic ElementsUncovering Chavez's Motives for Autocracy PromotionUncovering the Reaction of the Target States: Welcoming Venezuela’s SupportVenezuela as an Attractive Role ModelThe Target States: Motives for Adopting Elements from the AGCEvaluation of the FindingsConclusionNotesReferencesKazakhstan: A Possible Future Authoritarian Gravity Center?IntroductionKazakhstan as an Authoritarian Gravity CenterAuthoritarianismEconomic GrowthInternational EngagementCentral Asia: A ‘Contested’ Region with Multiple Authoritarian PlayersEvidence from Expert Interviews: Motives of Kazakhstan as an AGCPromotion of the Kazakhstani ModelPreventing InstabilityEvidence from Expert Interviews: Mechanisms and OutcomesSocialization of Elites and BureaucraciesInteraction of Think TanksЕmulationEvidence from Expert Interviews: Is Kazakhstan an AGC or Just a Potential One?Kazakhstan’s “Involvement” in Kyrgyzstan’s Presidential ElectionsBackgroundThe ConflictA Case of Autocracy Promotion?A Case of Authoritarian Foreign Policy?ConclusionNotesReferencesIII. The International Dimension of Authoritarianism RevisitedRussia’s Effects on a Consolidated Democracy: The Erosion of Democracy in Hungary and the Putin ModelIntroductionThe Hungarian Case and Authoritarian DiffusionThe Putin ModelHungary’s Constitutional TransformationThe JudiciaryThe MediaElectoral SystemCivil SocietyConclusionNotesReferencesIran and Its Neighbors: Military Assistance as Support for AuthoritarianismIntroductionInternational Dimension of Authoritarianism: Recent Theoretical Developments and DebatesUnderstanding Motives and MechanismsA Brief Introduction to Iran and Its Foreign PolicyIran and the Promotion of AuthoritarianismSyria: A Case of Military InterventionIraq: A Case of Political and Military SupportConclusionNotesReferencesNetworking with Chinese Characteristics: China’s Party-to-Party Relations in AsiaIntroductionThe External Relations of the CCP’s International DepartmentEmpirical Trends in the CCP’s Engagement in AsiaThe CCP in Asia: Five Explorative Case StudiesThe CCP in Vietnam: Like Will Do Like Despite TensionsThe CCP and Cambodia: From a Multi-Actor Approach to Backing the Ruling PartyThe CCP and Myanmar: Keeping Up with Changing Domestic Power StructuresThe CCP and Mongolia: No Easy GameThe CCP and Japan: Bridge over Troubled WatersComparative Analysis and Concluding RemarksNotesReferencesSpreading Cyber-Autocracy? The Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the Diffusion of Norms of “Internet Sovereignty”IntroductionAutocratic Cooperation and Resistance in the SCOSecurity CooperationEconomic CooperationCvbersecurity CooperationConclusionNotesReferencesIV. Authoritarian Gravity Centers in Cross-Regional ComparisonAuthoritarian Gravity Centers in Cross-Regional Comparison: Future Studies and the International Dimension of AuthoritarianismIntroductionSummary of Results: Venezuela, Saudi Arabia,Cross Regional Comparison: The Hotv, What, and WhyProspects for Further Research: The AGC RevisitedNoteReferencesNotes on Contributors
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