The Case for Youth Police Initiative: Interdependent Fates and the Power of Peace

“Quality of Life” Laws and DecriminalizationYouth Police Initiative (YPI) in the Context of Other Youth and Police ProgramsCase StudyCase Study MethodologyAction ResearchContentsNoteTheory and Founding of YPIForce Field TheoryInterdependent Fates and TasksT-Groups (Training-Groups).Dr. Yitzhak Bakal and the Normative ApproachNorth American Family Institute (NAFI): Home of YPIForce Fields + T Groups = Youth Police InitiativeYPI Saves LivesChallenges to YPIRecommendations for Future PracticePolice TrainingLarger Scale Funding for a Unique InterventionExperiential Learning is KeyHow to Sustain the Positive Effects of YPINotesYPI: Principal Players and PraxisSeeds of YPIThe Kerner CommissionPolice Corps: Camp Shelby, Hattiesburg, MississippiFrom Hattiesburg to Baltimore to White Plains: The Seeds Are SowedYPI comes to BostonYPI Hits the StreetsHow YPI WorksLearning by DoingBenefits of YPICultural ChangeRacismCommunities of Color Have a VoiceTrustCognitive DissonanceThe Most Successful TrainingsThe Best Training: YPI With ShootersTaking Risks is a Developmental Rite of Passage for AdolescentsThe Most Challenging TrainingsTargeted SpecializationYPI With the Muslim Community: “This Has Never Happened Before”What About Counter Violent Extremism Programs?“Oh Bermuda?!” YPI AbroadYPI Continues to GrowYPI’s ChallengesPolice Are Resistant, Then They Open UpThe Contagion EffectFunding Obstacles: Is YPI Cost Prohibitive?Federal Funding ObstaclesWhat Now?YPI Training of TrainersYouth Leadership AcademyYPI Next StepsSummary of Key ThemesNotesYPI Case Study Boston: Franklin FieldFranklin Field Before YPITensions Between Housing DevelopmentsPolice Attitudes: “I Dread Going There Because I Hate It”Operation Gridiron: “Before YPI our end-game stunk”Police Encounters: “It’s Burned in My Memory”Challenges Starting YPI with Franklin FieldPolice Reluctance/ResistanceResidents’ Mistrust of PoliceKeys to Success of YPIUniqueness of YPI: “This Is Different”Breaking Down BarriersSharing personal storiesFrom Crime to Community: “They Had No Place for Kids to Go”YPI With Young WomenConnections: Sharing Names and Phone NumbersChanges Resulting From YPIShifts in Police Attitudes and Behavior Toward YouthYouth Learn to Trust OfficersAlleviation of Tensions and Reduced ViolenceHelping Youth Achieve Their Goals: “Their Dreams Were Safe With Us”Expanded Programming Based on the Expressed Needs of Young People and ResidentsEngagement of Parents and FamiliesSustainabilityLeadership, Partnerships, and RelationshipsImportance of an Action PlanWidespread Engagement of Law Enforcement“So It Really Does Police Itself”Franklin Field Today: Wellness Leads to Public SafetyDarryl’s Story: “My Dreams Are Limitless”Summary of Key ThemesNoteYouth and Police Perceptions of Each Other Pre-YPIBackground: Brooklyn’s Brownsville NeighborhoodMethodology with YouthDescription of Participating YouthInterviews with CBO Director and Youth Pre-TrainingYouth Perceptions of Police Pre-YPISummary of Key Themes of Youth Perceptions of Police Pre-YPIPolice Perceptions of Youth Pre-YPIBackgroundMethodology with PoliceSummary of Key Themes: Police Perceptions of Youth Pre-YPINotesNotes From the SessionsBrownsville: YPI Session OneBrownsville: YPI Session TwoThe Car StopBrownsville: YPI Session ThreeBrownsville: YPI Sessions Four and FiveSummary of Key ThemesPost-YPI: Police and Youth Assess ImpactsYouth Perceptions of Police: Post-YPIPolice Perceptions of Youth: Post-YPIOverall Summaries of Youth and Police Post-YPI PerceptionsThe YouthWhat Surprised Them or Impressed Them About the TrainingWhat They LearnedFavorite PartsWhat They Found DifficultHow YPI Would Make a DifferenceWhat They’ve Shared With Friends and FamilyWhat Could Be Done BetterThe PoliceWhat Surprised ThemReasons for Poor Relations Between Youth and PoliceWhat Was Best About the TrainingWhat Could Have Been BetterHow Police Behaviors Will Change in the FutureWhy YPI Training Is ImportantRecommendations for Future TrainingsSuggestions for Sustainable ChangeWhat Both Police and Youth Agreed onSummary of Key ThemesThemes: Challenges to Community Police RelationsProfound Public Embarrassment and Humiliation From Police StopsErosion of Trust, Racism, and Health ConsequencesProfiling: “It is Difficult Not to Profile Youth” and “A Group of Young Black Men is a Gang”“Where Are the Detectives?! They Harass us Daily”Procedural Justice? Aggressive Police Stops Ultimately Make a Cop’s Job HarderThe Blue Wall Prevents Cops From Speaking out About MisconductBeing a Young Black Officer Makes It Easier and Harder: “Pick a Side”“I’ve Definitely Been Accused of Being a Racist”White Privilege Makes Advocacy for Youths in the Criminal Justice System Easier“You’re Too Pretty to Be a Cop”“Brownsville is Plagued by Violence”No One Is Calling 911A “Regular Suburban Neighborhood” with Small Pockets of Violence“OG Cops are Cool, It’s the Rookies!”“Why are Police Trained to Shoot to Kill?”Diffusing, Not Creating a CrisisAn Informal Quota System Drives ArrestsSummonses and Bureaucracy Lead to Arrests“Once You Are in the System, You Cannot Get Out”Disenfranchisement to Dehumanization—Arrest to Jail to “Aftercare”Prison–Industrial Complex Prevents PreventionBrownsville Is Exploited as a Testing Ground for New InitiativesConclusionNoteThemes: Overcoming Obstacles Between Youth and PoliceWhere Should Youth Go? “Park after Dark,” Playing Dice and DrinkingViolent Crime and Unemployment: Youth Need Job and Other Positive OpportunitiesPolice Are Not Human ServicesThe Teen Center Made the Difference“A Youth Would Have Been Shot Without YPI”Limited Success of Police and Youth ProgramsYPI Is Different from Other Youth and Police ProgramsPolice Expressed Their VulnerabilityWe Will Explain Why We Stop You: Tensions Dissipated Through CommunicationBody Language Makes a DifferenceThat’s Why Cops Do That, That’s Why Kids Do ThatRemarkable Change from Preto Post-YPI in BrooklynLeadership CaresPolice Officers Are People TooI Didn’t Realize the Harassment Was So BadThey Like Me, They Really Like Me!Increased Youth and Police ActivitiesYPI “Brings Together Opposing Gangs”Parents Started to Trust PoliceWe Need More TimeConclusionNoteWhat Do We Do Now?Police AttitudesRecommendations: Research, Policy, and PracticeTheme: New Laws, the Pendulum Swings to Community PolicingRecommendations: Communication Cultivates Police LegitimacyPolice LegitimacyCollege EducationQuality Interaction Program (QIP)Motivational Interviewing (Ml)Recommendation: Positive Performance MeasuresRecommendation: Community PolicingTheme: Youth Are Leaders, Spread the WordRecommendations: Youth Development Model Promotes Youth LeadershipTheme: What Are Cops Trained to Do and Why Do Cops Shoot to Kill?Recommendation: Police Should Be Trained to Use De-Escalation TacticsThemes: The Neighborhood Is a Police State, and Traumatic Encounters with Police Since Childhood and Generational TransmissionRecommendation: Police Should Be Trained in Trauma-Informed PolicingTrauma-Informed Policing In ActionTheme: “You Fit the Description” Constant HarassmentRecommendations: Body-Worn Cameras and “Indigenous Helpers”Theme: Environmental Conditions Criminalize BehaviorsRecommendation: Asset Mapping and Needs AssessmentRecommendation: Police Partnerships With Social ServicesTheme: Cops From the Neighborhood Are DifferentRecommendations: Hire More Officers From the Neighborhood and Comparable CommunitiesTheme: Does Officer Identity Matter?Recommendation: Implicit Bias TrainingSummary of Key RecommendationsYPI Is a Door to Community Policing: What makes YPI Successful?Fidelity to YPI Model and Close Collaboration With CBOsNext Steps YPIFunding ChallengesRecommendation: Embed YPI in an Academic InstitutionRecommendation: Create Wraparound FundsConclusionField Theory and the Normative ApproachRedressing HarmsNote
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