Sustainability and the Automobile Industry in Asia: Policy and Governance

I. Conceptual framework and background for understanding the sustainability impact of transport and automobilesSustainability and the automobile industry in Asia: An overviewIntroductionBackground to this bookStructure of the bookReferencesTransport issues and challenges in Asian cities and their socioeconomic and environmental implications for achieving the Sustainable Development GoalsIntroductionCurrent megatrends and future of Asian citiesRapid population growthUrbanization and motorizationNatural disastersClimate change impactsImpact of global warming on Asian citiesRisk of sea-level rise for Asian citiesKey transport-related issues and challenges in Asian cities: a rapid reviewTraffic congestion and associated socioeconomic challengesAir pollution and its socioeconomic consequences in AsiaAsia’s road safety problem and its socioeconomic consequencesRural–urban transport disparitySocioeconomic benefits of rural–urban connectivityPoverty eradicationImproved health care accessImproved education facilitiesIncreased agricultural productivityLimited urban infrastructure and transport servicesGlobal demand for infrastructureInfrastructure demand in AsiaImportance of sustainable transport for achieving the 2030 Agenda and SDGsPolicy measures for improving traffic congestion and air qualityIntegrating different modes of transportTransport pricing reformRemove fuel subsidiesUse of high-occupancy vehicle lanes and intersectionsRidesharing programsPolicy measures for the improvement of road safetyPreventing drinking and drivingSpeed controlBetter road designOther road safety strategies and measuresPolicy recommendations and conclusionsKey policies and strategies for congestion relief, improvement of air quality and road safety managementAlternative modes of transportImproving public transport systemsPromotion of non-motorized transportEmission standards and inspection and maintenanceTransportation demand management (TDM)Smart growth developmentReferencesRegulatory convergence and policy diffusion in automobile emission standards: Cases of China and IndiaIntroductionRegulatory convergence and policy diffusionAutomobile environmental regulatory convergencePolicy diffusionPolicy developments on vehicle emissions in ChinaTrends of exhaust emission regulationsTrends of fuel economy regulationsPolicy developments on vehicle emissions in IndiaTrends of exhaust emission regulationsTrends of fuel economy regulationsAnalysis: policy diffusion and automobile emission standardsChinese automobile environmental policy and policy diffusionPolicy diffusion on vehicle exhaust gas emission standardsPolicy diffusion on fuel economy standardsIndian automobile environmental policy and policy diffusionPolicy diffusion on vehicle exhaust gas emission standardsPolicy diffusion on vehicle exhaust gas emission standardsConclusionAcknowledgmentNotesReferencesII. Case studiesEnabling purposive experimentation in the transport sector: The case of BRT improvement and CNG conversion in Semarang, IndonesiaIntroductionLiterature reviewBus retrofit in Semarang: enabling low-carbon technologyEnabling BRT improvements and the retrofit program in SemarangBuilding capacityStakeholder engagementMobilizing resourcesToward an effective enabling environment for purposive experimentationConclusion and future researchAcknowledgementsReferencesGreen vehicle policy and demand in IndonesiaIntroductionLiterature reviewElectric vehicle (EV) regulationsLessons from previous studies of hybrid electric vehicles in IndonesiaGreen vehicle industry and policy in IndonesiaDevelopment of the green vehicle industry in IndonesiaDevelopment of green vehicle policy in IndonesiaDevelopment of green vehicle technology and infrastructure in IndonesiaCase study of green vehicles in IndonesiaMultinomial logit model (MNL) of attributes influencing LCGC preferencesPublic transport electric vehiclesDiscussion and analysisConclusion and policy recommendationAcknowledgmentReferencesChallenges for fuel quality change in IndiaIntroductionHistory of fuel quality and emission norms in IndiaPolicy and regulatory analysis of fuel quality in IndiaProfile of automobile industryAuto Fuel PoliciesGovernment plans and programmesTransformational measures initiated by governmentFuel efficiency normsResearch development on alternative fuelspercent EVs in public and 40 percent in private sector by 2030Institutional analysis: stakeholder interests and perspectiveConclusion: opportunities and challengesAcknowledgmentReferencesSustainable transport strategies for GurgaonIntroductionDemographySpatial growthLand use and its planningTransport scenario in GurgaonPoor public transportMobility dependent on autos and rickshawsCar-ownership-based travelOla- and Uber-based travelConnectivity with neighboring townsHighways as medium of exclusionPolicy decisionsNational Urban Transport Policy, 2014National Transit Oriented Development Policy, 2014Influence zoneHigh density compact developmentMixed-use developmentValue capture financingHaryana State Transit Oriented Development PolicySustainable solutions and suggestionsIntegrated land useStakeholder involvementCross-hierarchicalGeospatial intelligent systemsInstitutional setupConclusionsReferencesRole of motor inspection and maintenance: Practices and governance in JapanIntroductionSocial implications of I/MHistorical developments of Japan’s automobile exhaust gas emission regulationJapan’s I/M governanceHistory of I/M in JapanHorse carriage regulationSteam engine inspectionSystems relevant to I/M and the associated benefitsDiscussion and conclusion: how to develop I/M governance in Asia?ReferencesGovernance for a sustainable automobile future in Asia: Barriers and enablersIntroductionGovernance and policy implications for a sustainable automobile future in AsiaUnderstanding the values and implications of sustainable transport governance in Asia
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