Policy recommendations and conclusions

Safe, adequate, efficient, affordable, inclusive and people- and environment- friendly transport systems are important enabling conditions for economic growth, resilience of cities and sustainable urban development. Transforming public transport and reducing the number of automobiles in cities helps considerably to tackle traffic congestion, air and noise pollution, road accidents, injuries and fatalities, and thereby decrease GHG emissions.

Sustainable urban planning, better roadway design and robust infrastructure development are key for the improvement of urban mobility and sustainable urban growth. This chapter makes up a set of policy recommendations to overcome the existing and future urban challenges in Asian cities, thus helping to achieve the SDGs and related targets by 2030 (Tables 2.4 and 2.5).

Table 2.4 Contributions of sustainable transport to SDGs and related targets

SDGs

Related targets

Contributions of sustainable transport to the SDGs

Target 1.1: By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than US$1.25 a day.

Improving transport connectivity can reduce poverty and provide economic opportunities and basic services for all sectors of society.

Target 2.1: By 2030 end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round.

Improved rural transport infrastructure and services with better supply chain logistics can make food more accessible and affordable by reducing costs of agricultural products and thus reduce hunger.

Target 3.6: By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents.

Implementation of improved policies and regulations for road safety and development of safe and people-friendly transport infrastructure and services can help to reduce the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents.

Target 4.3: By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university.

Transport connectivity and enhanced rural-urban linkages provide better opportunities to access school and universities for all sectors of society.

Target 5.1: End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere.

Socially inclusive transport systems open new opportunities for women and girls and improve access to better health, education, markets and employment opportunities.

SDGs

Related targets

Contributions of sustainable transport to the SDGs

Target 6.1: By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all.

Better transport options can assist in providing drinking water to areas of water shortage.

Target 8.5: By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value.

Sustainable transport infrastructure and services can increase access to markets, boost trade and commerce, and create new jobs. They further help the efficient movement of people and goods through better supply chains and logistics.

Target 9.1: Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all.

Robust transport infrastructure and services significantly help economic development and human well-being at both regional and local levels.

Target 10.1: By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average.

Improved and affordable transport connectivity helps poor and disadvantaged groups access job and income generation opportunities which help to reduce inequality.

Target 11.2: By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons.

Better transport systems can offer cost-effective, low-carbon and sustainable transport solutions that provide high levels of mobility and accessibility for the benefit of all.

Target 12.3: By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post- harvest losses.

Improved transport accessibility and connectivity, and better freight and logistics, can increase food security and reduce food losses between farm and market.

SDGs

Related targets

Contributions of sustainable transport to the SDGs

Target 13.1: Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate- related hazards and natural disasters in all countries.

Disaster- and climate-resilient transport infrastructure and low-carbon transport services can significantly enhance the resilience of cities and communities and help increase capacity to adapt to climate change.

Target 17.9: Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the sustainable development goals, including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation.

International cooperation, collaboration, networking, knowledge-sharing and capacity- building among different stakeholders in transport sector help to make better partnerships for achieving the SDGs.

Table 2.5 Summary of social, economic, environmental and climate co-benefits from different sets of policy interventions and measures

Social benefits

Land-use

planning

Public

transport

Non-

motorized

transport

Transit-

oriented

development

Transport

demand

management

Smart

Growth

Public health improvement

*

У

У

*

У

Traffic road accident injury and fatality reduction

У

У

У

У

Convenience and comfort

У

/

У

У

/

У

Enhanced mobility and accessibility

У

У

У

У

У

У

Improved safety and security

У

У

У

У

У

У

Benefit to business

У

У

У

У

У

У

More attractive and dynamic

У

У

У

У

У

У

Gender equality promotion

*

У

У

*

*

Increased aesthetic value

У

У

У

32 Ganesh Raj Joshi Table 2.5 Cont.

Social benefits

Land-use

planning

Public

transport

Non-

motorised

transport

Transit-

oriented

development

Transport

demand

management

Smart

Growth

Economic benefits

Congestion

reduction

У

У

У

У

У

У

Reduced journey time

У

У

X

У

У

У

Energy security and fuel savings

У

У

/

У

У

У

Employment

creation

У

У

У

У

У

У

Productivity

improvement

У

У

*

У

У

У

Raising revenue from various taxes and fees

У

*

*

У

У

У

Environmental benefits

Improved air quality

У

/

У

У

У

Particulate matter reduction

У

/

У

У

У

У

Sulphur oxide reduction

У

/

У

У

У

У

Carbon monoxide reduction

У

/

У

У

У

У

VOC reduction

У

/

У

У

У

У

Noise reduction

У

У

У

У

У

Climate co-benefits

Greenhouse gas reduction

У

У

У

У

У

Improved resilience of cities

У

У

У

У

У

Help for climate mitigation

У

/

У

У

У

У

(У= co-benefit; * = depending on the situation; x = no effect)

 
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