The Routledge Handbook of Language and Science

On sociocultural approaches to language and scienceContributions to the study of language and scienceNotesI. History and development of language and scienceLanguage and science from a rhetorical perspectiveThe rhetoric of science scholarMetaphorOther figurative languageEthosConclusionNotesSocial semiotic approaches to language in science: A history of engagement with language and scienceIntroductionHistory and developmentSemiotic resources and formations in science fair presentationsThe role of semiotics in textbook illustrations and other imagesSemiotics supporting language through artSemiotics in science writingNew directions for the field given historical concernsNotesPublic understanding of science: Popularisation, perceptions and publicsThe evolution of science communication and the place of PUSPUS and popularisation: the concept of sciencePopularisation of climate science and farming knowledgePUS and perceptions: the concept of understandingPerceptions of trust increase with participationPUS and publics: constructing multiple publicsPublics influence on knowledge creationConclusionNotesScience, journalism, and the language of (un)certainty: A review of science journalists' use of language in reports on scienceIntroduction: science journalism, (un)certainty, and languageRepresentation of scientific (un)certainty in the mediaMedia depiction of criteria relevant to assess scientific evidenceBalance of competing scientific claimsConclusionNotesLanguage and science in science and technology studiesThe voice of nature: word, style, and narrativeA sovereign spaceScience in translationScience and public understandingConclusionNotesII. Language and powerLanguage, power, and public engagement in scienceRhetorical devices in expert discoursesRhetorical devices in public dialogueConclusionsNotesRhetoric's materialist traditions and the shifting terrain of economic agencyThe ideological turn and oppositional agentive subjectsThe biopolitical turn and cartographic agencyThe new materialist turn and posthuman agencyMarxist valuation and posthumanist materialityNotesAccounting for 'genetics' and 'race' requires a use-focused theory of languageThe model of language in the warnings about 'race-and-science'The expectable unexpected findings of research on 'genetics' and 'race''Racism' is not a stable single belief but a difficult-to-define set of usesUpgrading our theory of language in light of studies of the interface of 'genetics' in science and popular languageSummaryNotesEncomium of the harlot, or, a rhetoric of refusalI: the proposalII: the case for acceptanceIII: the harlot's refusalNotesGender and the language of science: The case of CRISPRSexed and gendered discoursesGender, genre, and scientific priorityGender and ethicsGender and ethosHumilityFemininityIntensityPerfectionismGendered patterns in scientific languageNotesIII. Language and pedagogyRhetorical invention and visual rhetoric: Toward a multimodal pedagogy of scientific writingWhy we need a multimodal pedagogy for rhetoric of science: science is multimodalWhy we should use rhetoric for a multimodal pedagogyRhetorical invention and visual rhetoric of scienceConclusion: using the canon of invention in teaching science writingNotesUse of personal pronouns in science laboratory reportsIntroductionLiterature reviewMethodData setsData analysisResultsUse of I and we to state results or make claimsI and we as opinion holders/to elaborate an argumentTo define termsDisciplinary informant/textbook voiceRecounting experimental procedureI or we as architect or guideI or we as architect/To state a purposeI and we as guideRepresenting the communityRepresenting the discourse communityRepresenting the community in mathematical argumentRepresenting people in generalWe as research participantsTeaching implications: appropriate use of personal pronouns in academic writingConclusionNotesDialogic approaches to supporting argumentation in the elementary science classroomArgumentation in science instructionThe sociocultural view of practicesChallenges to enacting argumentation in the classroomResearch on supporting dialogue in the classroomStrand 1: characteristics of classroom culture that support argumentationStrand 2: features of classroom tasks that support argumentStrand 3: linguistic scaffolds for teachers and studentsStrand 4: characteristics of productive talkCase studySegment 1: cycling between types of talkSegment 2: extended segment of exploratory talkSegment 3: shift towards disputationai talkDiscussionImplicationsConclusionNotesThe 'objective truths' of the classroom: Using Foucault and discourse analysis to unpack structuring concepts in science and mathematics educationWhat is understanding?Where did this pursuit of understanding come from?How is language such as 'understanding' enacted in the classroomConcluding remarksNotesIterative language pedagogy for science writing: Discovering the language of architectural engineeringBackgroundFeatures of the language of scienceCorpus tools for analysing scientific textsThe Web as corpusSpecialised corporaCombining the rhetorical and corpus approach to analyse science discourseAn iterative corpus method case study: writing for architectsConclusionsNotesIV. Language and materialityOf matter and money: Material-semiotic methods for the study of science and languageTheoretical foundationsDifferential attunementsTechnological metaphorsBiological metaphors(Meta)physical constructsPerformative metaphorsAttunements and affordancesCalibration in actionA cyborgian correctiveCritical ANTFinding your attunementNotesAnatomical presencing: Visualisation, model-making, and embodied interaction in a language-rich spaceRhetoric as an art of making presentVisualising bodies in the anatomy labAnatomical images as analogy-like modelsPutting words to imagesConclusionNotesNarrative, drama, and science communicationWhy narrative?Performing scienceScience, drama, and the exploration of ideasConclusionsNotesLanguage, materiality, and emotions in science learning settingsDichotomy between science and emotions in science educationSocial pathologies within the dichotomyCurrent assumptions about conceptualizations of emotionsConsidering materiality of emotions in science education scholarshipOrienting to materiality of emotional discourse and scienceOpenings for the materiality of emotions in discourse of scienceConclusionNotesThe materialist rhetoric about SARS sequelae in China: Networked risk communication, social justice, and immaterial laborMateriality and materialist rhetoricSocial justice and rhetoricSARS sequelae in survivors and family clustersCase 1: MCWs suffering from SARS sequelaeCase 2: non-MCW patients in BeijingDifferential treatments of MCW survivors and non-MCW survivorsFang Bo: the model SARS patient and self-trained advocateRhetorical endeavors to fight for a more dignified post-SARS lifeMaterialist rhetoric, social justice, and SARS sequelaeNotesV. Language and public engagementExploring public engagement in environmental rhetoricLiterature and book reviewsMethodsRhetorical analysis and case studiesExpert strategiesSkeptical strategiesDiverse publicsOrganisational responsesHistorical responsesMultimodal responsesResponses in the mediaIntercultural responsesInternational responsesOverall assessmentCase study: rhetorical text miningConclusionNotesHeuristics for communicating science, risk, and crisis: Encouraging guided inquiry in challenging rhetorical situations—the CAUSE model of strategic crisis communicationScientists' goals for communicating and knowledge of audiencesScholarship in science communication, risk communication, and crisis communicationThe default deficit model of science, risk, and crisis communicationKairos, heuristics, and the CAUSE model for science, risk, and crisis communicationThe CAUSE model of science, risk, and crisis communicationThe C in CAUSE: earning audience confidenceThe A in CAUSE: gaining awarenessThe U in CAUSE: deepening understandingFour steps for explaining key conceptsPromoting visualizationFour steps for explaining hard-to-believe scientific ideasThe S in CAUSE: supporting decision makingSupporting decision makingThe E in CAUSE: enactmentHeuristics to analyze enactmentCautions and conclusionNotesWhen expertises clash: (Topic) modeling stasis about complex issues across large discursive corporaPathways from expertise to expertisesThe logic(s) of engagements between expertisesModeling spaces of invention: a tentative proof-of-conceptDiscussion, and what's nextNotesBlasting for science: Rhetorical antidotes to anti-vax discourse in the Italian public sphereFrom scientist citizen to scientist activistA populist war on science: vaccination editionBlasting for scienceBlasting science into the public sphereTrolling the trolls, putting out flamesConclusion: keep on blasting them!NotesExploring conversations about science in new mediaScience, culture, and languageA study in public debate: the replication crisisConclusionNotesVI. Futures for language and scienceRhetorical futures for the study of language and science: Theorizing interpublics in/for healthcarePublics theorizingHealthcare workers as an 'interpublic'Mandatory flu vaccinations for healthcare workersInterpublic resistance rhetoricInconsistent careSpecial treatmentsFuture studiesNotesEcologies of genres and an ecology of languages of science: Current and future debatesA changing sociolinguistic landscapeThe scientific community and its specific linguistically diverse ecosystemFuture research on genres for science disseminationFuture research on languages for science disseminationNotesBecoming the other: The body in translationCase I: Francois MontelCase II: Stephen HawkingCase III: the thinking person's disease or Type 1 DiabetesThe world is a dream: where should we go next?NotesScience communication on social media: Current trends, future challengesIntroductionPublic communication of science: a tricky concept to defineScience communication on social mediaScience and technology on YouTube: a participatory culture boom or revamping the cognitive deficit model?Background of the studyMethod and corpusResults of video subject matter and video stylePurpose of communicatorRhetorical resourcesFuture challenges: the open debate on science in social mediaNotesLanguage and science: Emerging themes in public science communicationIntroductionBeyond discourseBeyond critiqueBeyond deficit and dialogueDiscussionNotesBibliography
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