Youth Justice and Penality in Comparative Context

The Conceptual and Empirical Co-ordinates of Comparative Youth Justice and PenalityIntroductionInter- and intra-jurisdictional convergence and divergenceDisproportionate penality and the injustices of youth 'justice'Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and black and minority ethnic children and young peopleGirls and young womenChildren and young people known to social welfare and child protection agenciesChildren and young people with mental health disorders and/or cognitive/neuro-disabilitiesChildren and young people living at the acute ends of social and economic adversity and exclusionThe spatial differentiation of youth justice and penalityConceptual framework, research design and methodological approachComparative research as a complex endeavourKey competing and/or intersecting themes and narrativesSynopsis and structureNotesRecent Histories and Contemporary Trends in Comparative Youth Justice and PenalityIntroductionThe ebbs and flows of child and youth imprisonment: temporal and spatial patterns and the politics of penalityCirca 1980-1991: convergence and confluenceCirca 1992-2002: divergence and differenceAustralia: consolidating diversion and décarcérationEngland and Wales - politicisation and the punitive turnCirca 2003-2018: incoherence and messiness'What works', evaluation and evidenceRisk assessment and risk management: actuarialism and early interventionPunitiveness and intoleranceSpatial differentiation and counter-motionsTemporal differentiation and counter-motionsConclusionNotesPopulist Discourses and Public Representations of ‘Young Offendes’IntroductionPopulist discourses: law and order common sensePublic representations and regressive effectsThe Janine Balding caseThe James Bulger casePublic representations and neutral effectsThe Corey Davis and the Eliza jane Davis casesThe Edlington casePublic representations and progressive effectsAustralian Broadcasting Corporation: Four CornersBritish Broadcasting Corporation: PanoramaThe politics of populist discourses, public representations and policy/practice effectsThe broader politics of media management and policy relationsSocial media, populist discourses and public representationsConclusionEnduring Violations: Youth Justice, Penality and Human RightsIntroductionThinking critically about children’s human rightsA systemic analysisThe minimum age of criminal responsibility (MACR)Policing and criminalisationStop and search and strip-searchingArrestsQuestioning and detention in police custodyFreedom of movement and associationCourts and judicial proceedingsPrivacy in criminal proceedingsPenal detentionDetention as a last resortMandatory and indeterminate sentencingBail and custodial remandTreatment and conditions in detentionChildren and young people in adult prisonsConclusionNotesThe Racialisation of Youth Justice and PenalityIntroductionCriminalisation and racialisation: definitions and complexitiesRecurring histories of overrepresentationPolicing and racialised criminalisationThe racialised construction and policing of 'gangs''New' sites of racialisation: Islamophobia, counter-terrorism and policingProsecution, sentencing and punishmentRisk, racial pathologisation and the criminalisation of structural injusticeSocial media, racialisation and crimeConclusionNotesThe Disabling Effects of Youth Justice and PenalityIntroductionMapping the social demography and conceptualising the disabling effects of youth justice and penalityThe interlocking and compounding nature of systemic injustice(s)EducationPublic careCriminality and criminalisationSystemic and disproportionate criminalisationPolicingCourt and bailCustodial detentionBroken systemsConclusionNotesRe-thinking Comparative Youth Justice and Penality: From Global/Supranational Trends to Sub-national/Local PracticesIntroductionComparative research through a tri-focal lens: global, inter-national and intra-national analysesThe global, supranational and transnational levels of analysisThe inter-national and national levels of analysisThe intra-national, sub-national, regional and local levels of analysisReviewing differentiated youth justice and penality at the sub-national levelAustraliaEngland and WalesComprehending and explaining differentiated youth justice and penality at the sub-national levelTheorising differentiated youth justice and penality at the subnational levelEmpirical conceptualisations of differentiated youth justice and penality at the sub-national levelEngland and Wales: negative and positive power and the formulation of local penal culturesLeadershipPhilosophical foundations and service configurations: penal welfare v offender managementPerceptions of diversionPerceptions of custodial detentionKnowledge-informed approachesHuman rights consciousnessSynthesising the constituent elements of local penal culturesAustralia: positive power, self-determination and redressThe Koori Children's CourtThe Yiriman ProjectThe Maranguka lustice Reinvestment ProjectA cautionary noteConclusionNotesConclusions and reflectionsThe complexities of comparative researchGovernance and injusticeRepresentations and effectsProspectsFutures, contingencies, certainties and uncertaintiesHuman rights-knowledge synthesis at the national levelModelling pioneering and promising approaches at the sub-national, sub-State and/or Territory and local levelsBibliography
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