Summary of basic experiences of developed countries in promoting independent innovation and comments on the Soviet Union

The basic experiences of developed countries in promoting independent innovation and enhancing their national competitiveness can be summed up in the following aspects.

Establish a relatively complete policy, legal and organizational security system for independent innovation to create a favorable external environment

All countries have emphasized the strategic status of science and technology, set up high-level management agencies, or formulated plans to promote the improvement of independent innovation capability.

In 1993, the United States set up a Federal Science and Technology Commission headed by the President and the heads of relevant government agencies, which include nine sub-commissions, including health and food, national security, information and communications, civilian industrial technology, environment and natural resources, international science and technology, transportation research and development, and education and training. The Office of the Presidential Science and Technology is responsible for coordinating government departments to develop and implement science and technology budget and policy; cooperate with the private sectors to ensure that the federal government’s investment in research and development in science and technology is conducive to economic prosperity, environment quality, and national security; make assessment of the scale, quality, and effectiveness of federal science and technology policy inputs. In addition, the United States has passed a series of bills since 1980 and the government has funded a number of programs to promote independent innovation. The main bills include the Stevenson-Widler Technology Innovation Act, Bayh-Dole Act, Small Business Innovation Development Act, National Cooperative Research Act, Trademark Act, Federal Technology Transfer Act, Presidential Decree No. 12591, Presidential Decree 12618,

National Cooperative Research Act, Omnibus Foreign Trade and Competitiveness Act, etc. The major programs include the ATP program headed by the Institute of Standards and Technology of the Ministry of Commerce and the Manufacturing Technology Promotion Plan; Technology Reinvestment Program of the Ministry of Defense; the US Textile Partnership Program undertaken by the Ministry of Energy; the construction program participated by Ministry of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology and coordinated by the National Science and Technology Commission; the Small Business Innovation Program and the Small Business Technology Transfer Program undertaken by Small and Medium Business Administration.

Since 1981, the British government has formulated a series of government- funded information technology and strategic research programs—including the application of microprocessor programs; microelectronics industry development plans; R&D programs in the field of information technology; optical fiber optical plan; Aver Information Technology Research and Development Program; Information Engineering Advanced Technology Program; Link Program; Technology Outlook Plan; and promulgated governmental whites papers on the theme of innovation such as Realizing Our Potential: A Strategy for Science, Engineering and Technology, Our Competitive Future: Building the Knowledge-Driven Economy, Excellence and Opportunity: A Science and Innovation Policy for the 21st Century, and Opportunities in a Changing WorldEntrepreneurship, Skills and Innovation in 1994, 1998, 2000, and 2001 respectively; and so on. After 2002, the United Kingdom systematically published a series of action plans including Investing in Innovation in July 2002, Competition in the Global Economy: Innovation Challenge in November 2003, Science and Innovation Investment Framework (2004-2014) in July 2004, and Creating Value from Knowledge in November 2004. These documents pointed to a new' national science and technology development strategy centered on innovation in the United Kingdom.

Japan formally established the strategy of “building our nation based on science and technology” in 1980 and announced the Science and Technology Outline and Science and Technology Basic Law in 1986 and 1995 respectively. The first, second, and third phases of Science and Technology Basic Plan were released in 1996, 2000, and 2005 respectively. And since January 2000, the highest science and technology decision-making body in Japan—“Science and Technology Conference”—has been replaced by “Comprehensive Science and Technology Conference” and its chairman is the Prime Minister with 14 members from Chief Cabinet Secretary Officials. The officials are respectively from relevant provincial officials, experts, and academics. Japan has not only expanded the departments and fields under its jurisdiction, but also set up special organizations to reinforce the compositional functions of its members. It also merged the “Science and Technology Agency” with the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology into one and set up a “Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology” under unified leadership. This is of great significance to the close relationship among industry, universities, and research institutes and to promotion of the development of science and technology and independent innovation in Japan.

 
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