Clarify the main roles of actors of all independent innovation activities
The main actors of the innovative activities include enterprises, research institutes, institutions of higher education, and governments at all levels. Different actors should have different emphases and undertake different innovation tasks.
In the United States, enterprises are the main body of independent innovation, and are mainly engaged in applied research. Among them, the research work of 100 large enterprises accounts for the vast majority of the entire industry; hiring scientific and technological personnel accounts for 60%-70% of the national employment of science and technology personnel; annual research and development funding of 100 billion US dollars accounts for two-third of R&D expense; American colleges and universities mainly assume the task of knowledge creation and knowledge diffusion. As American research universities must undertake high-level research projects supported by the federal government, a large number of scientific research work should be undertaken while training high-level talents so as to promote the cultivation of high-level talents and the interactions of high-level scientific research. The United States gradually shifted its research from the public field to technological development and technology transfer in the industrial sector. The government gradually reduced its research on supporting the production process and focused on supporting fundamental research.
Japan conducted the basic division of independent innovation actors: government research institutes affiliated with various government departments mainly engaged in applied research and development research, universities engaged in basic scientific research, and private enterprise R&D institutions mainly engaged in development research.
With enterprises’ investment as the main body, continue to increase public research funding
Since 1991, the total amount of R&D investment in the United States, Japan, the European Union countries, and other countries and regions has been increasing. However, from the perspective of sources of R&D investment, the proportion of investments by enterprises has been gradually increasing. Take the United States as an example—since amount of R&D investment of the industry surpassed that of the R&D investment of the federal government for the first time in 1980, R&D investment of the industry has become the mainstay of R&D investment in the United States. From the relative proportion of federal R&D investment to total R&D investment, since 1964, the share of federal R&D investment in total R&D investment has declined year by year. It dropped to 25.1% in 2000, which was the lowest level in history. However, due to the declining investment in research and development in the industry in recent years, the share of federal R&D investment in total R&D investment in 2003 rose to 30.0%. Taking into consideration other developed countries and regions, by 2003, enterprises in OECD countries were the major sources of R&D investment, accounting for almost 62% of R&D investment in that year; in Japan, the corporate sector accounted for almost 75% of R&D investment; and the EU for 55%.
While taking enterprises’ investment as the main body, governments of all countries (regions) have successively increased their investment in public research. Judging from the R&D budgets of various countries and regions, the Science and Technology Plan 2010 announced by the Department of Trade and Industry in Singapore strived to invest a total of 7.5 billion Singapore dollars (about 4.6 billion US dollars) over the next five years. The French government recently announced research budget which proposed that as of 2007, it would provide one billion euros per year in additional funds for the financing of its own scientific research. On July 5, 2006, the research budget approved by the German government for 2007 increased sharply to
8.5 billion euros, which was an increase of 6.2% over 2006. For Japan, the government-related science and technology budget in 2006 amounted to 3.5733 trillion yen—of which 1.3312 trillion yen was spent on technology promotion, which was an increase of 1.1% over the previous year. The US president suggested that the expenditure estimation of 2.77 trillion US dollars in fiscal year 2007 should include 137 billion US dollars in research and development expenditures, which was an increase of 3 billion US dollars over 2006 and an increase of 7,300 US dollars from 2005. The European Commission approved in April 2005 a new proposal for an EU research program, the EU’s Seventh Research Framework Program (2007-2013), and specifically recommended that the seventh framework program budget be double that of the sixth framework plan. That is, the budget of 2007-2013 should be increased to 67.8 billion euros.