Mentoring Science Teachers in the Secondary School: A Practical Guide

The purpose of this bookAbout this bookeResourcesOther resourcesAbout youTerminology used in the bookSection 1. Foundations of mentoringModels of mentoringIntroductionObjectivesDefinitions of mentoringThe context in which you are working that underpins your mentoring practiceEffective mentoring modelsSummary and key pointsFurther resourcesAbout you as a mentorIntroductionObjectivesAnalysing your motivations and readiness to mentorWhat does good mentoring mean to you?Your sense of self and how it impacts on your mentoring roleMentoring beliefs and values and their impact on the styles of mentoringMentoring styles and your beliefs and valuesTeacher beliefs and values and its impact on you as a mentorCultural beliefsOther external forcesSummary and key pointsFurther resourcesBeginning science teachers’ expectations of their mentorsIntroductionObjectivesSelf-reflection on the characteristics of effective mentoring from a beginning teacher’s perspectiveMentoring actions from a beginning teacher’s perspectiveConstructivist approaches to establish effective mentoringSupporting a beginning teacher’s expectationsSupport to understand the school environmentSuggestions on balancing teaching life with other commitmentsFacilitate a beginning teacher’s teaching of scienceSupport to meet teacher standardsUnreasonable expectations by a beginning teacher of a mentorSummary and key pointsFurther resourcesAppendix 3.1 Personal Record of Progress (PRoP) formAccountabilities of a reflective mentorIntroductionObjectivesSome important aspects of reflective mentoringElements of reflective practice (RP)OurselvesOther peopleThe environmentTime offers new challengesRP to support change among beginning teachersRP and experience sharing conversationsRP and documenting reflective accountsModels of reflective practice (RP) for unreflective beginning teachersModel 1: Kolb’s learning cycleModel 2: Brookfield’s lensesModel 3: Malthouse and Roffey-Barentsen’s situated reflective practiceSummary and key pointsFurther resourcesDeveloping a mentor–mentee relationshipIntroductionObjectivesThe need for building a mentor–mentee relationshipMentoring approaches that support the emotional needs of a beginning teacherA mentor–mentee relationship to support the development of confidence by a beginning teacherMentoring to strengthen the mentor–mentee relationship through emotional intelligenceSummary and key pointsFurther resourcesSection 2. Basic mentoring practicesSupporting beginning teachers with lesson planningIntroductionObjectivesLesson planning as a reflective processSupporting a beginning teacher’s developmental journey of planningApprenticeship planeGuided participation plane: Understanding the science curriculum to plan learning outcomes and key questionsLearning outcomes and pupils learningLearning outcomes and key questionsGuided participation plane (continued): Three-part lesson planone: Starttwo: Main bodythree: ConsolidationParticipatory appropriation planePlanning for differentiationPlanning for differentiated questionsPlanning for differentiated tasks for the same activityLong-term planningSummary and key pointsFurther resourcesAppendix 6.1 Handout for pupils investigating the relationship betweenthe voltage across a resistor and the current through itSupporting beginning science teachers to teach and evaluate their lessonsIntroductionObjectivesStages of development as a teacherCharacteristic behaviours of effective teachersCalmnessClarityConsistencyCareConfidenceA beginning teacher teaching lessons and mentor’s supportEarly idealism stage of developmentSurvival stage of developmentRecognising difficulties stage of developmentRevisiting basic teaching skillsTeaching strategiesHitting a plateau stage of developmentUse of questioningIncorporating group workUse of textsMoving onEvaluation of a beginning teacher’s progressSelf-evaluations of lesson debriefSelf-evaluations of pupils' feedbackSummary and key pointsFurther resourcesAppendix 7.1 Self-evaluation and mentor–mentee discussion templatePre-lesson discussions, lesson observation and post-lesson discussions in mentoring beginning science teachersIntroductionObjectivesMentoring styleLesson observation cyclePre-lesson discussionsPedagogical content knowledge (PCK)Teacher standardsAgreed on focused dimensions for feedbackLesson observationWhen to intervene in an observed lesson?Recording lesson observationsРost-lesson discussionsMentoring checklistSummary and key pointsFurther resourcesAppendix 8.1 Lesson observation template for JohnHolding weekly mentoring meetingsIntroductionObjectivesPurposes of a weekly mentoring meetingExternal and internal drivers that guide the purpose of weekly mentoring meetingsExternal diversInternal driversPre-planning the structure of weekly mentoring meetingsThe GROW (Goal, Reality, Obstacles/Options and Way forward) modelReflection on your ability to hold weekly mentoring meetingsSummary and key pointsFurther resourcesAppendix 9.1 An example template of a weekly meeting record documentSection 3. Extending basic mentoring practicesSupporting beginning teachers to develop pedagogical content knowledgeIntroductionObjectivesThe importance of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in teaching scienceA learning progression approach to the development of a beginning teacher’s PCKElicitation leading to reconstruction stage of developmentReconstruction leading to PCK-mediated effective teachingEffective teaching: Linking subject knowledge with PCKSummary and key pointsFurther resourcesAppendix 10.1 Subject knowledge audit for beginning teachersAppendix 10.2 A CoRe matrix to develop PCK, adapted from Eames,Williams, Hume and Lockley (2011, p. 3)Appendix 10.3 An example of a completed CoRe matrix, for teachingenzymes to 14–16-year-old pupilsAppendix 10.4 A three-step process to help a beginning teacher to developtheir subject knowledge and PCK [SK refers to subject knowledge]Supporting beginning teachers to cope with contingenciesIntroductionObjectivesWhere does mentoring begin?Mentoring: What is scientific explanation?Why can science learning be so difficult?Why are unexpected questions so unsettling for a beginning teacher?Summary and key pointsFurther resourcesSupporting beginning teachers to develop their ability to assess pupilsIntroductionObjectivesAssessment dimensions development over timeA beginning teacher’s induction to some assessment policies, procedures and practices in your schoolSupporting a beginning teacher to develop some dimensions of summative assessmentsSupporting a beginning teacher to develop some aspects of formative assessmentRich questioning: Developing classroom dialogue and building confidence among pupilsComment-only marking: Improving feedback and enhancing motivation among pupilsSelf- and peer-assessment to support learningThe formative use of summative tests and fairness for all pupilsSummary and key pointsFurther resourcesAppendix 12.1 Action plan templateSupporting beginning teachers to link learning, memory and inguiryIntroductionObjectivesEffective teaching and successful learning in science classroomsWhat are beginning science teachers’ beliefs and understandings about memory and learning?Supporting beginning teachers to optimise learning by embedding the memory phenomenon of desirable difficulties in their classroomsThe spacing effectInterleaved practiceRetrieval practiceBeginning teachers’ inquiry into misconceptions about learning and memorySummary and key pointsFurther resourcesAppendix 13.1 Task 13.2 suggested answers (based on Firth, 2018)Supporting a beginning teacher to apply features of the nature of scienceIntroductionObjectivesMentoring to support a beginning teacher’s understanding of the importance of the nature of science (NoS)Is there a best way of teaching the NoS in the curriculum?Supporting a beginning teacher to reflect on their existing practical work mediated teaching practices using the nine elements of the NoSIncorporating health and safety training as part of beginning teacher developmentSources of guidanceInduction to the laboratoryRisk assessment for every experimentA professional development walk (PDW)NoS focused lesson plansSummary and key pointsFurther resourcesSupporting beginning teachers in embedding scientific literacyIntroductionObjectivesMentoring a beginning teacher to incorporate some pedagogical practices associated with scientific literacySupporting beginning teachers to embed scientific literacy dimensions in their teaching practicesAssisting beginning teachers in planning lessons to highlight a pedagogical view of scientific literacyColumn one: Learning outcomes and scientific literacy elementsColumn two: ActivitiesColumn three: AssessmentMentor and beginning teacher’s evaluationsSummary and key pointsFurther resourcesAppendix 15.1 A lesson plan template: Scientific literacy dimensionsMentoring beginning teachers in implementing process-oriented guided inquiry learning: An example of an inquiry-based pedagogical approach of teaching scienceIntroductionObjectivesPOGIL: An inquiry-based, experiential learning approachMentoring science as inquiryThe POGIL learning cycle: Understanding the link between theory and practiceInquiry questionsGroup roles and responsibilitiesImplementing POGIL process skillsDeveloping a series of POGIL lesson plansMentoring questions to facilitate planning, teaching and evaluationSummary and key pointsFurther resourcesAppendix 16.1 Rates of reactionSection 4. Moving beyondSupporting a beginning teacher to become autonomousIntroductionObjectivesMentor’s self-reflection and a beginning teacher’s peer-discussions to support the development of an autonomous teacherIntroducing a beginning teacher to the wider school communityThe continued transition between the three planes to develop teacher’s autonomyApprenticeship plane: Inducting a beginning teacher into the wider school communityGuided participation plane: Introduce the concept of negotiation of meaningParticipatory appropriation plane: Characteristic changes in exhibiting personalised teacher’s identitySummary and key pointsFurther resourcesSupporting a beginning teacher to implement extension and enrichmentIntroductionObjectivesDifferentiation and extensionEnrichmentFramework for supporting the ability of a beginning teacher to enrich pupils’ learningMentoring to elicit reflectionMentoring to support Chen’s learning outcomesUsing the modelling of good practice to provide support and challengeDraw on external expertise to develop relevant knowledge-based enrichment activitiesStep 5. Review and plan for the futureSummary and key pointsFurther resourcesSupporting beginning teachers to work with pupils with special educational needs and disabilityIntroductionObjectivesWhat do we mean by special educational needs and disabilities (SEND)?What does research say about SEND classroom practices and how can you support a beginning teacher to implement best practice?Experiential learningScientific literacyInquiry-based learningOverarching activities for beginning teachersCase studyIn-depth discussionSummary and key pointsFurther resourcesTo conclude
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