School Reform and Democracy in East Asia

School reform and democracy in Japan in the global eraSchool reform and democracy in JapanEducation and politics in modernisationExperientialism (1947,1951)Systematisation of subjects and contents (revised in 1958 and 1960)Modernisation of education (revised in 1968 and 1970)Curriculum of humanity (revised in 1977 and 1978)View on new academic ability (revised in 1989)Zest for living (revised in 1998 and 1999)Zest for living and ability to use knowledge (revised in 2008 and 2009)Active learning and competencies-based curriculum (revised in 2017 and 2018)Neoliberal reconstruction of education and schoolingThe impact of school criticism and education in crisisConversion of academic ability and curriculumResponsibility and confusion of education reformDevelopment of educational reformEducational reform in Japan, the United Kingdom, and AmericaReversal reforms: between relaxed education and academic achievement improvementThe consequences of neoliberalism and neoconservatismGlobalisation and démocratisation in East Asian educationCreating a school system for a knowledge-based societySchool reform in China and South KoreaRebuilding education and schooling in democratic societyReferencesThe case of school reform in South Korea: seeking innovation of school cultureRethinking school reform in South KoreaEducation reform promoted by the government since démocratisation in South KoreaFirst school plan by a democratic government - educational reform by the Kim Young-sam government (1993-1998)Education reforms that inadvertently accelerated democracy and competition: educational reforms under the Kim Dae-jung administration (1998-2003)Emergence and discussion of the equality ideals of autonomy and participation - educational reform under the Roh Moo-hyun administration (2003-2008)Competition, freedom, and diversification leading to widening disparities - education reform under the Lee Myung-bak administration (2008-2013)Pursuing excellence and welfare at the same time: education reform under the Park Keun-hye (2013-2017) administrationEnsuring the public nature of school education - educational reform under the Moon Jae-in administration (2017 - present)Voluntary efforts by teachers, parents, and citizens to reform schoolsAlternative education movements for public educationThe importance of philosophy and vision in school reform: creating ‘Schools as Learning Communities (SLC)’From teachers, parents, and citizens to innovation schools that cooperate with local communitiesThe school reform story of the principal and the teacherSchool design by the principal and teachers of Heung-deok High SchoolSchool reform driven by the hidden power of teachersReferencesCurriculum change and teacher education reform in China in the age of globalisationIntroduction: issues in education following the opening of ChinaDecentralisation of curricula management and construction of modern basic curricula systemDecentralisation of the curriculum management systemEstablishment of modern curriculum standardsThe future of civics education between virtue education and the nationalisation of textbooksExpansion of the virtue education conceptsNationalisation of textbooks in some subjectsA new perspective on student academic abilitySignificance of PISA survey resultsBackground on the introduction of Chinese core competenciesThe contents of core competencies in ChinaTeacher education and training in ChinaEstablishment of the Chinese teacher qualification systemReforming of teacher education and training in ChinaNational training plan for elementary and middle school teachersModel of training programmes for teachersMidwest rural community teacher training projectThe National Curriculum Standards of Teacher EducationPractice orientationLifelong learningConclusions: the future of educational reformsTowards a competency-based academic ability and curriculumTowards building a creative and meaningful learning environmentNotesReferencesThe implementation of SLC in Taiwan: a new chapter in education of democracyIntroductionThe implementation of SLC in TaiwanLate start and quick spreadInfluences ofSLC on classrooms and schools after implementation-Year Basic Education and the practice of SLCThe implementation of the 12-Year Basic Education policyShared values of the 12-Year Basic Education policy and SLCConclusion and discussionNotesReferencesProblem-based learning in Singapore: a bridge between institutional and workplace learningIntroductionDeveloping mastery and skills in the higher education sectorDesigning problems for PBLA conceptual framework of problem designFactors that influence problem designingIndividual levelCommunity levelMethodologyFindingsDesign decisions in PBLInfluences on teachers’ decisions in problem designIndividual levelCommunity levelDiscussionAn interconnected perspective on problem designWorking in an ecosystem of education, professional, and industry communitiesCreating an entry into disciplinary knowledgeDeveloping the industry professional: the importance of ‘boundary crossing’ in school and workEthical decision makingConclusionNotesReferencesDemocratisation and education reform in IndonesiaIntroductionDrastic political climate change from authoritarian state to democratic society in late 1990sMajor education reform since early 2000sEmpowerment of participatory school-based managementEnhancement of student’s learningMeeting practice of School as Learning CommunityInitiative to establish school-based lesson study: a case in Kabupaten SumedangAnother initiative to put students first in the learning process: a case in Bitung cityLesson design consultationWhole school observation and consultationOpen lesson and reflectionMini-workshops on specific themesConclusionNotesReferencesShapes of liberty: from the biographies of Vietnamese socialist teachersIntroductionBiographic dataThe socialist teacher professional developmentReflection by MoiLesson as businessEvaluation borrowing the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) ’s discourseFabricated lessonSelf-defensive disposition against colleaguesBrief history of teacher professional developmentRenovation of in-service teacher educationTeacher evaluationSchool reform through School as Learning CommunityTheoretical framework on liberty in the teaching professionNegative libertyPositive libertyRepublican libertyDeontic libertyCase: teachers’ senses of self and liberty in SLC pilot and non-pilot schoolsMoi’s biographyStructure of the biographyNarrative on positive liberty held by Japanese educatorsNOVEL OBSERVATIONTO WELCOME LEARNINGNarrative on positive unfreedomTHE SAD STUDENTNarrative on breakaway from unfreedomNEW FORM OF CLASSROOM OBSERVATIONTEACHERS’ EMBARRASSMENTACCEPTANCE OF THE SELF AND OTHERSNarrative on positive libertyNOVEL KNOWLEDGE INSIDE SCHOOLIMPORTANCE OF EVERYDAY PRACTICEHa’s storyHighlights of the career and working conditionsObjection to Japanese lesson studyTransformation of the liberty in teaching in lesson studyINVISIBLE BECAME VISIBLEOBSERVATIONAL STRUCTURENON-INVERTIBLE TURNHue’s storyHighlights of the career and workplace conditionsAppealing to /lawlessnessTransformation of the liberty in the recent reformTHE 'SELF REFLECTING THE SELF’ACCEPTING VS. HOLDING UPDiscussion: shapes of liberty held by Vietnamese teachersDeontic freedom in the flawlessnessThe will for true learning as positive libertyOasis of positive libertyThe ability of ontological observationOvercoming inability and constraint for teacher libertyAnother impediment to positive liberty within the teacher communityReferences
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