Police on Camera: Surveillance, Privacy, and Accountability

Bentham on the need for research and new tools for social controlBWCs as the paradigmatic new surveillanceVarieties of variationSurveillance roles, alternativesOther settings, uses, and toolsWoys of usingComparativeGoals: Depolicing or deescalating, transparency or privacy?Levels of analysis and tempering optimismBroad changes in social controlThreat assessment and suspicionsBentham againNotesReferencesSection 1. Setting the stage: Theory and practiceTaking off the blinders: A general framework to understand how bodycams workThe importance of contextThe starting pointThere is no holy grailWiden the lensThe importance of mechanismsUnderstanding what happensOfficers’ behavior mattersTechnology mattersThe frameworkTechnologyBodycamStorage and connectionsRecordingsPolicyRules of the gameTraining and guidanceLegal frameworkContextCultureTaskLocationThe combinationDon’t oversimplify, don’t despair, don’t be a technical reductionistNotesReferencesTheorizing police body-worn camerasThe uses of police BWCsSituating police BWCs and related technologiesPolicing and the power of watchingThe (street) politics of the policeSurveillance capitalism and surveillant securityPolice BWCs and the transformation of modern policingConclusion: BWCs and the future of policingReferencesReading the body-worn camera as multiple: A reconsideration of entities as enactmentsCommon representations of BWCsSTS reflections on the ontological turn and their bearing on ВWCsAn enactment of BWCs in policing practices: The case of Paul O’NealConcluding reflectionsReferencesSection 2. Accountability and discretionCan we count on the police?: Definitional issues in considering the promise of body-worn cameras to increase police accountabilityBWCs and the promise of accountabilityAccountability and policingWhat is accountability?Accountability in policingTechnology and accountabilityRe-considering BWCs and police accountabilityConclusionNoteReferencesThe camera never lies?: Police body-worn cameras and operational discretionPolice BWCs: Officer autonomy and discretionOperational guidance: Practicalities and expectationsOperation of police BWCsA civilizing effect?Detainee concernsDiscretionary powerFollowing the rules? What rules?Intentional provocation off cameraContinuous recording and transparencyConclusionNotesReferencesDoes surveillance of officers lead to de-policing?: A block randomized crossover controlled trial on body-worn cameras in UruguayDe policing and BWCsCausal studies on de-policing and specifically on the role of BWCs in de-policingThe Uruguay National Traffic Police body-worn cameras experimentTrial designSettingsUnit of analysisTreatment and experimental procedureMeasuresSample size and statistical powerRandom allocation procedureImplementation integrityStatistical methodsResultsDiscussion and conclusionAdditional limitationsNotesReferencesPolice body-worn cameras in the Canadian context: Policing’s new visibility and today’s expectations for police accountabilityThe contemporary phenomenon of “policing’s new visibility”Police body-worn cameras: The American contextPolice body-worn cameras: The Canadian context“Policing’s new visibility,” today’s socio-political context, BWCs, and accountabilityConclusionNotesReferencesCommentary: Accountability, discretion, and the questions we askCommentary: Questioning assumptions of de-policing and erasures of race: A rejoinder to Ariel and colleagues’ study of camera-induced passivity among traffic police in UruguayThe erasure of raceFlawed experimental logicsNotesReferencesSection 3. Privacy and surveillanceNot just about privacy: Police body-worn cameras and the costs of public area surveillanceResponding to police body-worn cameras: The debate so farVisual surveillance and the importance of public spacesConclusionReferencesPrivacy, public disclosure, and police-worn body camera footageEarly state laws addressing the clash between privacy and public disclosureNondisclosureFiltered disclosureCamera turn-off and turn-on legislationThe balances struck in early departmental police-worn body camera policiesCollection and coding methodsPolicy splits over privacy protectionImproving victim protection and incentivizing the development of technological solutionsAutomated redaction rather than broad or blanket exemptionsGiving victims and witnesses control over whether to recordConclusionNotesReferencesThe rise of body-worn video cameras: A new surveillance revolution?BWV initiatives in public servicesBWV and policing (United States)BWV and the policing (United Kingdom)Other Scottish public service environmentsThe governance of BWV in ScotlandMethodologyThe literature reviewThe analytical frameworkSite visits and semi-structured interviewsBWV and public services in ScotlandAcademic discourseBWV in practice in ScotlandConcluding discussionReferencesCommentary: A republican and collective approach to the privacy and surveillance issues of bodycamsRecapitulationBenjamin J. Goold—Not just about privacy: Police body-worn cameras and the costs of public area surveillanceMary D. Fan—Privacy, public disclosure, and police-worn body camera footageCharles Leleux and C. William R. Webster—The rise of body-worn video cameras: A new surveillance revolution?Republican freedom and bodycamsArbitrary interferencesNon-dominationConclusionA way forwardReferencesCommentary: Protecting the rights of citizens on camera: Why restricting disclosure of police body camera footage is better than giving victims control over recordingPolice legitimacySurveillance, privacy, and police accountabilityConcluding thoughtsReferences
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