Routledge Handbook of the Olympic and Paralympic Games

I. Athletes' issues in Olympic and Paralympic GamesDual career: Balancing success in sport and lifeIntroductionWhat is a dual career?Benefits of a dual careerDual careers and retirementDual career programmesGamesAre dual career programmes effective?What to include in a dual career programme?ConclusionReferencesHow a system of judicial precedent may help the rights of athletes before the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS)IntroductionCommon law or civil law before CAS?Binding or persuasive authority?The CAS standard of proof as an example of a practising common law traditionCAS, Olympics and Paralympics: time for review of the sporting justice processConclusionNotesReferencesDisability, classification and the Paralympics: Inclusion and exclusion of elite athletes with disabilitiesIntroduction to disability and classificationMultiple impairments and classificationDeveloping a robust classification systemElite sport for allTo be distinct, inclusive or integratedConclusionNoteReferencesWomen: Rules and classifications in the Olympics and ParalympicsIntroductionThe sexual politics of the GamesGendered bodies in the Olympics and ParalympicsThe Olympics and trans and intersex athletesConclusionReferencesLesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex athletes in the Olympic and Paralympic Games: Human rights, unfair advantage and exclusionIntroductionDefining LGBTILGBTI+ and the international human rights and international sports legal and policy landscapeSex, gender, sexuality and sport as a backdrop to human rights issues for LGBTI+ people within the Olympic GamesBlurring the boundaries: sex testing, gender and testosteroneConclusionNotesReferencesSport and nationality at the Olympic and Paralympic Games: Flags of convenience?IntroductionSport and nationality: history, context and jus talentiSport and nationality: the Olympics and ParalympicsOlympic and Paralympic nationality: future trajectoriesReferencesII. Olympic and Paralympic businessOlympic values: Sponsorship, values and integrity in sport creating a paradigm shiftIntroductionBalancing the Olympic revenue modelThe IOC's entry into the world of marketingEarly daysIdentifying the keys to successful Olympic marketingConclusionsNotesParalympic brand governance: The best of both worlds?IntroductionHistorical overview of the Paralympic movementBrand governanceThe governance of the Paralympic brandThe Paralympic Games sport programmes and the Paralympic brandThe role of the IOC in relation to the Paralympic brand governanceParalympic sponsorshipThe role of communication, media and the Paralympic brandParalympic brand and the disability communityConclusionNotesReferencesSponsoring the Paralympic Games and breaking barriersIntroductionHistory of the Paralympic GamesProcter & GambleToyotaBridgestone TireBritish PetroleumThe futureReferencesOlympic broadcast rightsIntroduction: an overview of the broadcast coverage and the OlympicsBroadcast revenuesHistorical overviewOlympic broadcast rights feesDevelopment of host broadcasting systemOBS and ensuring wide distribution of the Olympic GamesThe expansion of coverage in the 2000sOlympic broadcasting: why broadcasters still want the OlympicsNew media and the future of Olympic broadcastingOlympic ChannelConclusionReferencesActivation of Olympic and Paralympic sponsorshipIntroductionDefinition and theoretical backgroundThe activation processThe specificities of the Olympics/ParalympicsThe cases of Visa and Coca-Cola at the 2018 PyeongChang OlympicsThe case of VisaThe case of Coca-ColaTrends and challengesConclusionNotesReferencesLegal aspects of the Olympics and ambush marketingIntroductionProtecting the 'Rings'Ambush marketingOngoing Olympic brand protection challenges: "social ambush" and Rule 40ConclusionConcluding thoughtsReferencesThe evolving #rule40 of the Olympic Charter: Balancing the interest of sponsors vs athletesIntroductionRole 40 and social mediaRule 40 and the 2012 London GamesRule 40 and the 2016 Rio GamesRule 40 and the 2020 Tokyo GamesConclusionReferencesTowards a shared Olympic responsibility: Paradoxes and challengesIntroduction: sustainability as a foundation stone for Olympic Social ResponsibilityThe need for a shared Olympic Social Responsibility: emergence and definition of shared social responsibilityThe relevance of shared social responsibility to OlympismChallenges and difficulties associated with implementing a shared OSR: information provided by the IOC on its sustainability strategyParadoxes associated with shared OSRCan Olympism really contribute to making a better world?ConclusionNotesReferencesEsports in the Olympic and Paralympic Games: The business case for integrationIntroductionThe broadcastersTV companies are adopting esport streaming principlesEsports is innovating with TVThe sponsorsThe gaming publishers: technology companies are closing in on sportThe federations and the organising committees: co-development of game titles between traditional and gaming federationsConclusion: worlds alignReferencesOrganizing the Olympic GamesIntroductionBiddingBid reasonsProblems associated with bids in today's contextIOC bid processKey success factorsPlanningLeadershipOrganizing committee structureProject managementFinancial managementHuman resource managementStakeholder managementImplementationWrap-upConclusionReferencesReferendums at Olympic GamesIntroductionInfluences on direct-democratic procedures and their significance for the Olympic GamesReferendums at Olympic GamesKey criticisms of the Olympic GamesCurrent challenges and problems in the organization of Olympic GamesConcluding remarksNoteReferencesIII. The governance of the Olympic and Paralympic GamesThe composition of the IOC: Origins and key turning points in the governance of the Olympic movementIntroductionThe IOC's self-recruiting nature (1894-1921)Emerging stakeholders (1921-1973)Addressing challenges and initiating changes: from Varna to Baden-Baden (1973-1981)Implementing reforms: the effects of Baden-Baden (1981-1999)Crisis causes change: the Salt Lake City scandal and its consequences (1999-2013)The latest reform: the Olympic Agenda 2020ConclusionReferencesChanging parasport landscape and the evolution of the International Paralympic Committee governanceIntroductionStage 1: Initial formation (1989-1998)Stage 2: Professionalisation (1999-2003)Stage 3: Separating governance from management (2004-2014)Stage 4: Streamlining organisational structure (2015-2019)ConclusionReferencesOrganisational change campaigns of the Olympic movement: Insights from structural and cultural adaptationsIntroductionConceptualising change in the Olympic movement and the 'change or be changed' logicThe Olympic movement as a family and a transnational corporationChange campaignsConclusionReferencesSleeping with an elephant: The relationship between the International Olympic Committee and the International Paralympic CommitteeIntroductionThe early relationship (1948-1999)Tying the knot: a marriage made in heaven?DiscussionConclusionNoteReferencesThe autonomy of the Olympic and sport movementIntroductionConceptual history and ideological foundationsClassic liberalism and the freedom of associationRestraining freedom of associationDefining the autonomy of sportInternal and external challenges to the autonomy of sport governing bodiesProtecting the autonomy of sportThe rationalist approach to protecting autonomyThe constructivist approach to protecting autonomyThe autonomy of sport and good governanceConclusionReferencesPolitical autonomy and control of national Olympic committeesIntroductionThe position of NOCs within the Olympic movementThe political role of the NOCsThe autonomy of the NOCsCases of government control of NOCsEnforcing NOC autonomy todayConclusionReferencesThe changing attitude of the IOC and the I PC towards WADA and the governance of anti-dopingIntroductionThe governance of WADAIncreasing tension between WADA and the IOC: the Russian scandalOrganisational restructuring in the anti-doping regimeThe future direction of WADAConclusionReferencesBoard renewal and good governance in the Olympic movementIntroductionBoard renewal: context and rationaleGovernance within the Olympic movementBoard renewal via the use of limited termsBenefits of fixed terms and board renewalWhy organisations might not have limit termsBoard renewal strategiesConclusionNoteReferencesThe relationship between the IOC and international sport federationsIntroductionThe current environmentHistorical development of the relationship between the IOC and IFss-1980s: the commercialization and professionalization of the Olympic GamesRecent changes: fostering the sustainability of the Olympic movementRelationship dynamics and future research directionsInstitutional theory and new sports in the Olympic movementResource dependence theory and the relationship between the IOC and the IFsConclusionReferencesThe governance of the Court of Arbitration for SportIntroductionA practical model of governancePerez's model applied to the CASIssues to explore in order to improve the CAS governanceConclusionReferencesIV. Socio-cultural and political issues of the Olympic and Paralympic GamesTheory and social science-based research in scholarship around the Paralympic GamesIntroductionNormative valuesModels of disabilityMedical model of disabilitySocial model of disabilityBiosocial model of disabilityAbleismInternalised ableismKey research outputs focusing upon aspects of the Paralympic GamesKey books focusing upon aspects of the Paralympic GamesThe range of journal articles focusing upon aspects of the Paralympic GamesMedia and the Paralympic GamesLegacy and the Paralympic GamesSports diplomacy, politics and the Paralympic GamesSports history and the Paralympic GamesImpaired bodies, technology, classification and the Paralympic GamesPossible areas for future researchConclusionReferencesOlympic and Paralympic Games and human rightsIntroductionThe origins of human rightsThe contingency of human rightsThe long fuse of human rights in sportsThe Olympics and human rightsTowards the language of human rightsThe Paralympics and human rightsStrengthening compliance with human rightsReferencesSport for Development and Peace: Convergence and divergence with the Olympic movementIntroductionThe Sport for Development and Peace (SDP) sectorConvergence: international development and the Olympic movementDivergence: development pitfalls in and through the Olympic movementConclusionReferencesHome advantage in the Olympic and Paralympic GamesIntroductionConceptual frameworkOverview of previous researchStudy designHome advantage in the Summer Olympics and ParalympicsHome advantage in the Winter Olympics and ParalympicsConceptual framework revisitedConclusionReferencesDebating the future of Olympic and Paralympic legacyIntroductionWhat matters most for the Olympic movement that is worth striving for?What kind of legacy does the Olympic movement need?What is this about legacy we want to know?ConclusionReferencesCan health-related legacies through physical activity and sport be delivered by the Olympic and Paralympic Games?Introduction: rationales for hosting the GamesBest evidence for health-related legaciesTesting the evidence for health-related legaciesConclusion: are health-related legacies possible?ReferencesOlympic and Paralympic impacts in non-host city regionsIntroductionSporting mega events in non-host areasLeicestershireStrategy design and creation of the operational groupPartnership collaborationUnpredictable changes in political and economic contextsThe influence of the Olympic GamesMechanisms for building and spreading Olympic Games legacy outcomesShanghaiConclusionReferencesLegacies beyond the Olympic and Paralympic Games: The case of two Youth Olympic GamesIntroductionYOG legacies for host community residentsCase studies: Lillehammer 2016 YOG and Lausanne 2020 YOGYOG legacies, quality of life, and event supportFactors influencing legacy perceptions, quality of life, and event supportSport involvementOlympic valuesDiscussion and conclusionNotesReferencesArts and culture in the Olympic and Paralympic GamesIntroductionA brief history of art in the Olympic GamesFrom Olympic art competitions to Olympic art exhibitions and festivals (1912-1988)Cultural Olympiads: Barcelona 1992 to London 2012Art and culture at the Paralympic Games: Sydney 2000 onwardsMain trends, challenges and opportunities for culture at the GamesThematic focus: from sporting heritage to contemporary fusionsVision and priority objectivesPolitics and identity: growing or reigniting national prideEconomic regeneration: city reimaging and tourism projectionEntertainment, 'look and feet': crowd management, city animation and city dressingCultural and social change: creative innovation and community empowermentDelivery formatsGeographical spreadPromotional frameworksThe futureNoteReferencesOlympic and Paralympic Games education programmes: Education as engagement from a practitioner's viewIntroductionSydney 2000: education for engagementLondon 2012: mission and visionGet Set, official education programme of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic GamesGet Set in legacyCriticism of Get SetTokyo 2020: a new modelConclusionReferences
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