Achard F, Eva HD, Stibig HJ, Mayaux P, Gallego J, Richards T, Malingreau JP (2002) Determination of deforestation rates of the world's humid tropical forests. Science 297:999–1002

Ashley MV, Wilson MF, Pergams ORW, O'Dowd DJ, Gende SM, Brown JS (2003) Evolutionarily enlightened management. Biol Conserv 111:115–123

Baillie JEM, Hilton-Taylor C, Stuart SN (2004) A global species assessment. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland

Barraclough TG, Davies TJ (2005) Predicting future speciation. In: Purvis A, Gittleman JL, Brooks T (eds) Phylogeny and conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 400–418 Barraclough TG, Vogler AP (2002) Recent diversification rates in North American tiger beetles

estimated from a dated mtDNA phylogenetic tree. Mol Biol Evol 19:1706–1716

Barraclough TG, Nee S, Harvey PH (1998) Sister-group analysis in identifying correlates of diversification – comment. Evol Ecol 12:751–754

Bennett PM, Owens IPF (1997) Variation in extinction risk among birds: chance or evolutionary predisposition. Proc R Soc Lond B 264:401–408

Benton MJ, Emerson BC (2007) How did life become so diverse? The dynamics of diversification according to the fossil record and molecular phylogenetics. Palaeontology 50:23–40

Bininda-Emonds ORP, Cardillo M, Jones KE, MacPhee RDE, Beck RMD, Grenyer R, Price SA, Vos RA, Gittleman JL, Purvis A (2007) The delayed rise of present-day mammals. Nature 446:507–512

Blomberg SP, Garland T, Ives AR (2003) Testing for phylogenetic signal in comparative data: behavioral traits are more labile. Evolution 57:717–745

Bodmer RE, Eisenberg JF, Redford KH (1997) Hunting and the likelihood of extinction of Amazonian mammals. Conserv Biol 11:460–466

Bradshaw CJA, Giam X, Tan HTW, Brook BW, Sodhi NS (2008) Threat or invasive status in legumes is related to opposite extremes of the same ecological and life history attributes. J Ecol 96:869–883

Brook BW, Sodhi NS, Bradshaw CJA (2008) Synergies among extinction drivers under global change. Trends Ecol Evol 23:453–460

Butchart SHM, Stattersfield AJ, Bennun LA, Shutes SM, Akcakaya HR, Baillie JEM, Stuart SN (2004) Measuring global trends in the status of biodiversity: red list indices for birds. PLoS Biol 2:e383

Cardillo M (2003) Biological determinants of extinction risk: why are smaller species less vulnerable? Anim Conserv 6:63–69

Cardillo M, Bromham L (2001) Body size and risk of extinction in Australian mammals. Conserv Biol 15:1435–1440

Cardillo M, Meijaard E (2012) Are comparative studies of extinction risk useful for conservation?

Trends Ecol Evol 27:167–171

Cardillo M, Mace GM, Jones KE, Bielby J, Bininda-Emonds ORP, Sechrest W, Orme CDL, Purvis A (2005) Multiple causes of high extinction risk in large mammal species. Sciences 309:1239–1241

Cardillo M, Mace GM, Gittleman JL, Purvis A (2006) Latent extinction risk and the future battlegrounds of mammal conservation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:4157–4161

Cardillo M, Mace GM, Gittleman JL, Jones KE, Bielby J, Purvis A (2008) The predictability of extinction: biological and external correlates of decline in mammals. Proc R Soc B 275:1441–1448

Cione AL, Tonni EP, Soibelzon L (2003) The Broken zig-zag: late Cenozoic large mammal and tortoise extinction in South America. Rev Mus Argent Cienc Nat 5:1–19

Collen B, Böhm M, Kemp R, Baillie JEM (2012) Spineless: status and trends of the world's invertebrates. Zoological Society of London, London. ISBN 978-0-900881-68-8

Cooper N, Bielby J, Thomas HG, Purvis A (2008) Macroecology and extinction risk correlates of frogs. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 17:211–221

Crisp MD, Cook LG (2009) Explosive radiation or cryptic mass extinction? Interpreting signatures in molecular phylogenies. Evolution 63:2257–2265

Crozier RH (1997) Preserving the information content of species: genetic diversity, phylogeny, and conservation worth. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 28:243–268

Damuth J (1981) Population density and body size in mammals. Nature 290:699–700

Daru BH, Yessoufou K, Mankga LT, Davies TJ (2013) A global trend towards the loss of evolutionarily unique species in mangrove ecosystems. PLoS One 8(6):e66686

Davies TJ (2015) Losing history: how extinctions prune features from the tree-of-life. Philos Trans R Soc B 370. doi:10.1098/rstb.2014.0006

Davies TJ, Cadotte MW (2011) Quantifying biodiversity – does it matter what we measure? In: Zachos FE, Habel JC (eds) Biodiversity hotspots. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 43–60

Davies TJ, Yessoufou K (2013) Revisiting the impacts of non-random extinction on the tree-of-life.

Biol Lett 9:20130343

Davies TJ, Barraclough TG, Chase MW, Soltis PS, Soltis DE, Savolainen V (2004) Darwin's abominable mystery: insights from a supertree of the angiosperms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:1904–1909

Davies TJ, Fritz SA, Grenyer R, Orme CD, Bielby J, Bininda-Edmonds OR, Cardillo M, Jones KE, Gittleman JL, Mace GM, Purvis A (2008) Phylogenetic trees and the future of mammalian biodiversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:11556–11563

Davies TJ, Smith GF, Bellstedt DU, Boatwright JS, Bytebier B, Cowling RM, Forest F, Harmon LJ, Muasya AM, Schrire BD, Steenkam Y, Van der Bank M, Savolainen V (2011) Extinction risk and diversification are linked in a plant biodiversity hotspot. PLoS Biol 9:e1000620

Davies TJ, Wolkovich EM, Kraft NJB, Salamin N, Allen JM, Ault TR, Betancourt JL, Bolmgren K, Cleland EE, Cook BI, Crimmins TM, Mazer SJ, McCabe GJ, Pau S, Regetz J, Schwartz MD, Travers SE (2013) Phylogenetic conservatism in plant phenology. J Ecol 101:1520–1530 Diamond J (1984) Normal extinctions of isolated populations. In: Nitecki MH (ed) Extinctions.

University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 191–246

Diamond J (1989) Overview of recent extinctions. In: Pearl M, Western D (eds) Conservation for the twenty-first century. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 37–41

Dirzo R, Raven PJ (2003) Global state of biodiversity and loss. Annu Rev Environ Resour 28:137–167

Endler JA (1986) Natural selection in the wild. Princeton University Press, Princeton, USA Faith DP (1992) Conservation evaluation and phylogenetic diversity. Biol Conserv 61:1–10 Faith DP (2002) Quantifying biodiversity: a phylogenetic diversity. Conserv Biol 16:248–252

Faith DP (2008) Threatened species and the potential loss of phylogenetic diversity: conservation scenarios based on estimated extinction probabilities and phylogenetic risk analysis. Conserv Biol 22:1461–1470

Faith DP, Magallón S, Hendry AP, Conti E, Yahara T, Donoghue MJ (2010) Evosystem services: an evolutionary perspective on the links between biodiversity and human well-being. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 2:66–74

Felsenstein J (1985) Phylogenies and the comparative methods. Am Nat 125:1–15

Felsenstein J (1988) Phylogenies and quantitative characters. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 19:445–471 Fenschel T (1974) Intrinsic rate of natural increase: the relationship with body size. Oecologia


Fisher DO, Owens IPF (2004) The comparative method in conservation biology. Trends Ecol Evol 19:391–398

Forest F, Grenyer R, Rouget M, Davies J, Cowling RM, Faith DP, Balmford A, Manning JC, Proches S, Van der Bank M, Reeves G, Hedderson TAJ, Savolainen V (2007) Preserving the evolutionary potential of floras in biodiversity hotspots. Nature 445:757–760

Freville H, McConway K, Dodd M, Silvertown J (2007) Prediction of extinction in plants: interactions of extrinsic threats and life history traits. Ecology 88:2662–2672

Fritz SA, Purvis A (2010) Selectivity in mammalian extinction risk and threat types: a new measure of phylogenetic signal strength in binary traits. Conserv Biol 24:1042–1051

Gavrilets S, Vose A (2005) Dynamic patterns of adaptive radiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:18040–18045

Goldberg EM, Lancaster LT, Ree RH (2011) Phylogenetic inference of reciprocal effects between geographic range evolution and diversification. Syst Biol 60:451–465

Grandcolas P, Nattier R, Legendre F, Pellens R (2011) Mapping extrinsic traits such as extinction risks or modelled bioclimatic niches on phylogenies: does it make sense at all? Cladistics 27:181–185

Grenyer R, Orme CDL, Jackson SF, Thomas GH, Davies RG, Davies TG, Jones KE, Olson VA, Ridgely RS, Rasmussen PC, Ding T-S, Bennett PM, Blackburn TM, Gaston KJ, Gittleman JL, Owens IPF (2006) Global distribution and conservation of rare and threatened vertebrates. Nature 444:93–96

Haberl H, Erb KH, Krausmann F, Gaube V, Bondeau A, Plutzar C, Gingrich S, Lucht W, FischerKowalski M (2007) Quantifying and mapping the human appropriation of net primary production in earth's terrestrial ecosystems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:12942–12947

Hansen TF (1997) Stabilizing selection and the comparative analysis of adaptation. Evolution 51:1341–1351

Harmon LJ, Schulte JA, Larson A, Losos JB (2003) Tempo and model of evolutionary radiation in iguanian lizards. Science 301:961–964

Harmon LJ, Losos JB, Davies TJ, Gillepsie RG, Gittleman JL, Jennings WB, Kozak KH, McPeek MA, Moreno-Roark F, Near TJ, Purvis A, Ricklefs RE, Dolph S, Schulte JA II, Seehausen O, Sidlauskas BL, Torres-Carvajal O, Weir JT, Mooers AO (2010) Early bursts of body size and shape evolution are rare in comparative data. Evolution 64:2385–2396

Harvey PH, May RM, Nee S (1994) Phylogenies without fossils. Evolution 48:523–529

Heard SB, Mooers AO (2000) Phylogenetically patterned speciation rates and extinction risks change the loss of evolutionary history during extinctions. Proc R Soc Lond B 267:613–620

Hooper DU, Adair EC, Cardinale BJ, Byrnes JEK, Hungate BA, Matulich KL, Gonzalez A, Duffy EJ, Gamfeldt L, O'Connor MI (2012) A global synthesis reveals biodiversity loss as a major driver of ecosystem change. Nature 486:105–108

Huang S, Gittleman JG, Davies TJ (2012) How global extinctions impact regional biodiversity in mammals. Biol Lett 8:222–225

Ingram T (2011) Speciation along a depth gradient in a marine adaptive radiation. Proc R Soc B 278:613–618

Isaac NJB, Turvey ST, Collen B, Waterman C, Baillie JEM (2007) Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PLoS One 2:e296

Isaac NJB, Redding DW, Meredith HM, Safi K (2012) Phylogenetically-informed priorities for amphibian conservation. PLoS One 7:e43912

IUCN (2003) IUCN red list of threatened species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland

IUCN (2010) IUCN sampled red list index for plants. kew-biodiversity/plants-at-risk/indexhtm.

Jablonski D (1995) Extinctions in the fossil record. In: Lawton JH, May RM (eds) Extinction rates.

Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 25–44

Jansson R, Davies TJ (2008) Global variation in diversification rates of flowering plants: energy versus climate change. Ecol Lett 11:173–183

Jerozolimski A, Peres CA (2003) Bringing home the biggest bacon: a cross-site analysis of the structure of hunter-kill profiles in neotropical forests. Biol Conserv 111:415–425

Johnson CN (2002) Determinants of loss of mammal species during the late Quaternary “megafauna” extinction: life history and ecology, but not body size. Proc R Soc B 269:2221–2228 Jones DL (2002) Cycads of the world: ancient plants in today's landscape. Smithsonian Institution

Press, Washington, DC

Kadereit JW, Greibler EM, Comes HP (2004) Quaternary diversification in European alpine plants: pattern and process. Philos Trans R Soc B 359:265–274

Kamilar JM, Cooper N (2013) Phylogenetic signal in primate behaviour, ecology and life history.

Philos Trans R Soc B 368:20120341

Kettlewell MG (1972) The evolution of melanism. Oxford University Press, Oxford

Kinnison MT, Hendry AP (2001) The pace of modern life II: from rates of contemporary microevolution to pattern and process. Genetica 112:145–164

Kozak KH, Weisrock DW, Larson A (2006) Rapid lineage accumulation in a non-adaptive radiation: phylogenetic analysis of diversification rates in eastern North American woodland salamanders (Plethodontidae: Plethodon). Proc R Soc B 273:539–546

Laurance WF (1991) Ecological correlates of extinction proneness in Australian tropical rainforest mammals. Conserv Biol 5:79–89

Lawton JH (1995) Population dynamic principles. In: Lawton JH, May RM (eds) Extinction rates.

Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 147–163

Linder HP, Eldenäs P, Briggs BG (2003) Contrasting patterns of radiation in African and Australian Restionaceae. Evolution 57:2688–2702

Lohle C, Eschenbach W (2011) Historical bird and terrestrial mammal extinction rates and causes.

Divers Distrib 18:84–91

Lozano FD, Schwartz MW (2005) Patterns of rarity and taxonomic group size in plants. Biol Conserv 126:146–154

MacArthur RH, Wilson EO (1963) An equilibrium theory of insular zoogeography. Evolution 17:373–387

MacArthur RH, Wilson EO (1967) The theory of island biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton, USA

Mace GM, Gittleman JL, Purvis A (2003) Preserving the tree of life. Science 300:1707–1709 Mace G, Masundire H, Baillie JEM (2005a) Biodiversity. In: Hassan R, Scholes R, Ash N (eds)

Ecosystems and human well-being: current state and trends: findings of the condition and trends working group. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 77–122

Mace GM, Baillie JEM, Masundire H, Ricketts TH, Brooks TM et al (2005b). Biodiversity. In: The millennium ecosystem assessment: current status and trends: findings of the conditions and trends working group. Ecosystems and human well-being. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 53–98

Machordom A, Macpherson E (2004) Rapid radiation and cryptic speciation in squat lobsters of the genus Munida (Crustacea, Decapoda) and related genera in the southwest Pacific: molecular and morphological evidence. Mol Phylogenet Evol 33:259–279

Maddison WP, Midford PE, Otto SP (2007) Estimating a binary character's effect on speciation and extinction. Syst Biol 56:701–710

Martin PS (1967) Prehistoric overkill. In: Martin PS, Wright HE (eds) Pleistocene extinctions: the search for a cause. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 75–120

Mattila TM, Bokma F (2008) Extant mammal body masses suggest punctuated equilibrium. Proc R Soc B 275:2195–2199

May RM (2010) Tropical arthropod species, more or less? Science 329(5987):41–42

May RM, Lawton JH, Stork NE (1995) Assessing extinction rates. In: Lawton JH, May RM (eds) Extinction rates. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 1–24

McCormack JE, Harvey MG, Faircloth BC, Crawford NG, Glenn TC, Brumfield RT (2013) A phylogeny of birds based on over 1500 loci collected by target enrichment and high-throughput sequencing. PLoS One 8:e54848

McKinney ML (1997) Extinction vulnerability and selectivity: combining ecological and paleontological views. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 28:495–516

Meijaard E, Sheil D, Marshall J, Nasi R (2007) Phylogenetic age is positively correlated with sensitivity to timber harvest in Bornean mammals. Biotropica 40:76–85

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) Ecosystems and human well-being: synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC, 137 pp

Mooers AØ, Heard SB, Chrostowski E (2005) Evolutionary heritage as a metric for conservation. In: Purvis A, Brooks TL, Gittleman JL (eds) Phylogeny and conservation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 120–138

Mooers AØ, Faith DP, Maddison WP (2008) Converting endangered species categories to probabilities of extinction for phylogenetic conservation prioritization. PLoS One 3:e3700

Mooers A, Gascuel O, Stadler T, Li H, Steel M (2012) Branch lengths on birth–death trees and the expected loss of phylogenetic diversity. Syst Biol 61:195–203

Mora C, Tittensor DP, Adl S, Simpson AGB, Worm B (2011) How many species are there on Earth and in the ocean? PLoS Biol 9:e1001127

Morrison CL, Rios R, Duffy JE (2004) Phylogenetic evidence for an ancient rapid radiation of Caribbean sponge-dwelling snapping shrimps (Synalpheus). Mol Phylogenet Evol 30:563–581

Nee S (2006) Birth-death models in macroevolution. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 37:1–17

Nee S, May RM (1997) Extinction and the loss of evolutionary history. Science 278:692–694 Nee S, Holmes EC, May RM, Harvey PH (1994) Extinction rates can be estimated from molecular

phylogenies. Proc R Soc Lond B 344:77–82

Niklas KJ (1997) The evolutionary biology of plants. University of Chicago Press, Chicago O'Meara BC, Ane' C, Sanderson MJ, Wainwright PC (2006) Testing for different rates of continu-

ous trait evolution using likelihood. Evolution 60:922–933

Orme CDL, Davies RG, Burgess M, Eigenbrod F, Pickup N, Olson VA, Webster AJ, Ding T-S, Rasmussen PC, Ridgely RS, Stattersfield AJ, Bennett PM, Blackburn TM, Gaston KJ, Owens IPF (2005) Global hotspots of species richness are not congruent with endemism or threat. Nature 436:1016–1019

Owens IPF, Bennett PM (2000) Quantifying biodiversity: a phenotypic perspective. Conserv Biol 14:1014–1022

Pagel M (1999) Inferring the historical patterns of biological evolution. Nature 401:877–884 Parhar RK, Mooers AØ (2011) Phylogenetically clustered extinction risks do not substantially

prune the tree of life. PLoS One 6:e23528

Parmesan C (2007) Influences of species, latitudes and methodologies on estimates of phenological response to global warming. Glob Chang Biol 13:1860–1872

Phillimore AB, Price TD (2008) Density-dependent cladogenesis in birds. PLoS Biol 6:e71 Pilgrim ES, Crawley MJ, Dolphin K (2004) Patterns of rarity in the native British flora. Biol

Conserv 120:161–170

Pimm SL (1991) The balance of nature? University of Chicago Press, Chicago

Pimm SL, Jones HL, Diamond J (1988) On the risk of extinction. Am Nat 132:757–785

Pimm SL, Russell GJ, Gittleman JL, Brooks TM (1995) The future of biodiversity. Science 269:347–350

Purcell SW, Polidoro BA, Hamel J-F, Gamboa RU, Mercier A (2014) The cost of being valuable: predictors of extinction risk in marine invertebrates exploited as luxury seafood. Proc R Soc B 281:20133296

Purvis A (2008) Phylogenetic approaches to the study of extinction. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 39:301–319

Purvis A, Agapow PM, Gittleman JL, Mace GM (2000a) Nonrandom extinction and the loss of evolutionary history. Science 288:328–330

Purvis A, Gittleman JL, Cowlishaw G, Mace GM (2000b) Predicting extinction risk in declining species. Proc R Soc Lond B 267:1947–1952

Purvis A, Gittleman JL, Brooks TM (2005) Phylogeny and conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Pyron RA, Wiens JJ (2013) Large-scale phylogenetic analyses reveal the causes of high tropical amphibian diversity. Proc R Soc B 280:20131622

Rabosky DL (2010) Extinction rates should not be estimated from molecular phylogenies.

Evolution 64–6:1816–1824

Rabosky DL, Lovette IJ (2008) Explosive evolutionary radiations: increasing extinction or decreasing speciation through time? Evolution 62:1866–1875

Raup DM (1986) Biological extinction in Earth history. Science 231:1528–1533 Raup D (1991) Extinction: bad genes or bad luck? New Sci 131:46–49

Raup DM (1993) Extinction: bad genes or bad luck? Oxford University Press, Oxford

Ricklefs RE, Bermingham E (2002) The concept of the taxon cycle in biogeography. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 11:353–361

Rodrigues ASL, Brooks TM, Gaston KJ (2005) Integrating phylogenetic diversity in the selection of priority areas for conservation: does it make a difference? In: Purvis A, Gittleman JL, Brooks T (eds) Phylogeny and conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 101–119

Rolland J, Condamine FL, Jiquet F, Morlon H (2014) Faster speciation and reduced extinction in the tropics contribute to the mammalian latitudinal diversity gradient. PLoS Biol 12:e1001775 Russell GJ, Brooks TM, McKinney MM, Anderson CG (1998) Present and future taxonomic

selectivity in birds and mammal extinctions. Conserv Biol 12:1365–1376

Sandel B, Arge L, Dalsgaard B, Davies RG, Gaston KJ, Sutherland WJ, Svenning J-C (2011) The influence of late quaternary climate-change velocity on species endemism. Science 334:660–664

Saslis-Lagoudakis, CH, Kligard, BB, Forest F, Francis L, Savolainen V, Williamson EM, Hawkins JA (2011) The use of phylogeny to interpret cross-cultural patterns in plant use and guide medicinal plant discovery: an example from Pterocarpus (Leguminosae). PloS ONE 6(7):e22275 Scantlebury DP (2013) Diversification rates have declined in the Malagasy herpetofauna. Proc R

Soc B 280:20131109

Schluter D (2000) The ecology of adaptive radiation. Oxford University Press, Oxford

Schwartz MW, Simberloff D (2001) Taxon size predicts rarity in vascular plants. Ecol Lett 4:464–469

Seehaussen O (2006) Conservation: losing biodiversity by reverse speciation. Curr Biol 9:R334–R337

Shaw AJ, Cox CJ, Goffinet B, Buck WR, Boles SB (2003) Phylogenetic evidence of a rapid radiation of pleurocarpous mosses (Bryophyta). Evolution 57:2226–2241

Simpson G (1953) The major features of evolution. Columbia University Press, New York, 434 p Sodhi NS, Brook BW (2006) Southeast Asian biodiversity in crisis. Cambridge University Press,


Sodhi NS, Koh LP, Peh KS-H, Tan HTW, Chazdon RL, Corlett RT, Lee TM, Colwell RK, Brook BW, Sekercioglu CH, Bradshaw CJA (2008) Correlates of extinction proneness in tropical angiosperms. Divers Distrib 14:1–10

Srivastava DS, Cadotte MW, MacDonald AAM, Marushia RG, Mirotchnick N (2012) Phylogenetic diversity and the functioning of ecosystems. Ecol Lett 15:637–648

Stuart SN, Chanson JS, Cox NA, Young BE, Rodrigues ASL, Fischman DL, Waller RW (2004) Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide. Science 306:1783–1786

Taylor TN, Taylor EL, Krings M (2009) Paleobotany: the biology and evolution of fossil plants.

Academic, Burlington

Thomas CD, Cameroon A, Green RE, Bakkenes M, Beaumont LJ, Collingham YC, Erasmus BF, De Siqueira MF, Grainger A, Hannah L, Hughes L, Huntley B, Van Jaarsveld AS, Midgley GF, Miles L, Ortega-Huerta MA, Peterson AT, Phillips OL, Williams SE (2004) Extinction risk from climate change. Nature 427:145–148

Turgeon J, Stoks R, Thum RA, Brown JM, McPeek MA (2005) Simultaneous quaternary radiations of three damselfly clades across the Holarctic. Am Nat 165:E78–E107

Vamosi JC, Vamosi SM (2008) Extinction risk escalates in the tropics. PLoS One 3:e3886 Vamosi JC, Wilson JRU (2008) Nonrandom extinction leads to elevated loss of angiosperm evolu-

tionary history. Ecol Lett 11:1047–1053

Verde Arregoita LD, Blomberg SP, Fischer DO (2013) Phylogenetic correlates of extinction risk in mammals: species in older lineages are not at greater risk. Proc R Soc B 280:20131092

Vitousek PM, Mooney HA, Lubchenco J, Melillo JM (1997) Human domination of earth's ecosystems. Science 277:494–499

Von Euler F (2001) Selective extinction and rapid loss of evolutionary history in the bird fauna.

Proc R Soc B 268:127–130

Wake DB, Vredenburg VT (2008) Are we in the midst of the sixth mass extinction ? A view from the world of amphibians. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:11466–11473

Walker KJ, Preston CD (2006) Ecological predictors of extinction risk in the flora of lowland England, UK. Biodivers Conserv 15:1913–1942

Weir J (2006) Divergent timing and patterns of species accumulation in lowland and highland Neotropical birds. Evolution 60:842–855

Williams ST, Reid DG (2004) Speciation and diversity on tropical rocky shores: a global phylogeny of snails of the genus Echinolittorina. Evolution 58:2227–2251

Willis CG, Ruhfel B, Primack RB, Miller-Rushing AJ, Davis CC (2008) Phylogenetic patterns of species loss in Thoreau's woods are driven by climate change. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:17029–17033

Willis CG, Ruhfel BR, Primack RB, Miller-Rushing AJ, Losos JB, Davis CC (2010) Favourable climate change response explains non-native species' success in Thoreau's Woods. PLoS One 5:e8878

Wilson EO (1961) The nature of the taxon cycle in the Melanesian ant fauna. Am Nat 95:169–193

Wilson EO (1992) The diversity of life. Norton WW & Co, New York

Winter M, Schweigera O, Klotza S, Nentwigc W, Andriopoulos P, Arianoutsou M, Basnou C, Delipetrou P, Didžiulis V, Hejda M, Hulme PE, Lambdon PW, Pergl J, Pyšek P, Roy DB, Kühn I (2009) Plant extinctions and introductions lead to phylogenetic and taxonomic homogenization of the European flora. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:21721–21725

Winter M, Vincent D, Oliver S (2013) Phylogenetic diversity and nature conservation: where are we? Trends Ecol Evol 28:199–204

Witting L, Loeschcke V (1995) The optimization of biodiversity conservation. Biol Conserv 71:205–207

Wright SJ (2005) Tropical forests in a changing environment. Trends Ecol Evol 20:553–560 Xiang Q-Y, Manchester SR, Thoma DT, Zhang W, Fan C (2005) Phylogeny, biogeography, and

molecular dating of cornelian cherries (Cornus, Cornaceae): tracking tertiary plant migration. Evolution 59:1685–1700

Yessoufou K, Daru BH, Davies TJ (2012) Phylogenetic patterns of extinction risk in the eastern arc ecosystems, an African biodiversity hotspot. PLoS One 7:e47082

Yessoufou K, Bamigboye SO, Daru BH, Van der Bank M (2014) Evidence of constant diversification punctuated by a mass extinction in the African cycads. Ecol Evol 4:50–58

Zhang Y-B, Ma K-P (2008) Geographic distribution patterns and status assessment of threatened species in China. Biodivers Conserv 17:1783–1798

< Prev   CONTENTS   Next >