Intellectual Property Issues in Nanotechnology

Intellectual Property Issues in NanotechnologyINTRODUCTIONSTANDARD DEFINITION OF NANOTECHNOLOGYPHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE TECHNOLOGYMULTI-DISCIPLINARY NATUREABILITY OF NANO-PRODUCTS TO SOLVE SPECIFIC PROBLEMSDIFFICULTIES TO PROTECT NANOTECHNOLOGY AS TRADE SECRETENFORCEMENT AND POLICINGLEVEL OF TRANSPARENCY IN IP FILINGIP REGULATORY BODIES AND LAW PROVISIONSPATENT VS. PUBLICATIONPATENT BY THIRD PARTYCONCLUSIONACKNOWLEDGMENTREFERENCESSection 2. Food and Agricultural NanotechnologyEdible Crop Production by Nanotechnology: Is It a Sustainable Technology for Healthy Soil?INTRODUCTIONNATURAL AND ENGINEERED NANOMATERIALS IN THE SOILNANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTORApplications of Nanotechnology in AgricultureNanopesticidesNanofertilizersNanosensors and NanocompositesImpact on Health, Society, and EconomyNANOTECHNOLOGY TO PRODUCE EDIBLE CROPSDOES NANOTECHNOLOGY SHAPE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT?WHAT DOES HEALTHY SOIL AND THE THREAT POSED BY NANOTECHNOLOGY MEAN?AGRO-NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTCONCLUSIONACKNOWLEDGMENTSREFERENCESOptimistic Influences of Nanotechnology on Food Security and AgricultureINTRODUCTIONAPPLICATION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR (AT THE PRODUCTION SITE)NanopesticidesNanonutrients and NanofertilizersGenetic ToolNano-Enhanced Biological Treatment of Agricultural WastewaterNanotechnology in Animal Production and Animal HealthImprove the Quality of the SoilAPPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN THE FOOD SECTOR (AT THE MARKETING SITE)Food ProcessingFood PackagingFood StorageREFERENCESTrichoderma-Based Nanopesticides: Next-Generation Solution for Disease ManagementINTRODUCTIONTrichodermaNanotechnologyAPPLICATION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN AGRICULTURENanofertilizersNanopesticidesBIOSYNTHESIS OF NANOPARTICLESGreen Synthesis of NanoparticlesBiosynthesis of Metal Nanoparticles Using Trichoderma spBiosynthesis of Silver NanoparticlesThrough Trichoderma reeseiThrough Trichoderma atrovirideThrough Trichoderma koningiiThrough Trichoderma harzianumBIOSYNTHESIS OF GOLD NANOPARTICLES THROUGH FUNGUSGold Nanoparticle Synthesis by Trichoderma spThrough Trichoderma harzianumThrough Trichoderma koningiiBiosynthesis of Zinc Oxide NanoparticlesBiosynthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles through TrichodermaANTIMICROBIAL ACTION OF TRICHODERMA NANOPARTICLES AGAINST PLANT PATHOGENSMechanism of Action of NanoparticlesDIFFERENT TECHNIQUES AND INSTRUMENTATION USED FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOPARTICLESUV-Visible SpectroscopyElectron Microscopy (EM)Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)X-Ray DiffractionEnergy Dispersive Spectrum (EDS), Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX), and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectral (XPS) TechniquesDynamic Light Scattering (DLS)REFERENCESRole of Nanopesticides in Agricultural DevelopmentINTRODUCTIONWHAT ARE PESTICIDES?What Are Nanopesticides?Advantages of NanopesticidesTypes of Nanopesticide FormulationsNanoemulsion PesticidesNanosuspension PesticidesNanocapsule PesticidesNanoparticle PesticidesCONCLUSIONREFERENCESApplications and Practices of Myconanoparticles in Food and AgricultureINTRODUCTIONBIOSYNTHESIS OF NANOPARTICLES BY FUNGIAPPLICATIONS OF FUNGAL MNPS IN FOOD AND AGRICULTUREVegetable and Fruit PreservationCONCLUSIONREFERENCESSection 3. Pharmaceutical NanotechnologyCore Competencies in Cancer Nanotechnology in Brazil: Contributions of Scientific and Technological Knowledge in the Health SectorBACKGROUNDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND INDUSTRIAL PROPERTYSEARCH STRATEGY FOR IDENTIFYING CORE COMPETENCIES IN CANCER NANOTECHNOLOGY IN BRAZILCORE COMPETENCIES IN CANCER NANOTECHNOLOGY IN BRAZILCONCLUSIONREFERENCESDisruptive Nanotechnology Implications and Bio-Systems - Boon or Bane?INTRODUCTIONSurvival StrategiesHow Were Infectious Agents Encountered?The Onset of Antimicrobial ResistanceCLASSIFICATION OF NANOMATERIALSNanoparticlesCarbon-Based MaterialsMetal-Based MaterialsDendrimersCompositesNanofabrication (Synthesis of Nanomaterials)Bottom-Up ApproachTop-Down ApproachINTEGRATION OF NANO WITH BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMSMan vs. MetalsEngineering of Silver NanoparticlesNanobiotechological Aspects (Bio-Nanofactories)Drug Delivery SystemVirus as a VectorNanobacteria and NanobesMagnetotactic BacteriaNanotechnology-Based ProductsRIGHT TO NANOTECHNOLOGYNanotechnology MilestonesNeed for IPRHow Does Nano IPR Vary from Biotechnology IPRPitfalls of Nanotechnology for I PRNANOTECHNOLOGY REGULATIONS ACROSS THE GLOBEENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH HAZARDS MANAGEMENTCONCLUSIONREFERENCESNanocellulose Application in Encapsulation and Controlled Drug ReleaseINTRODUCTIONCELLULOSENANOCELLULOSECellulose NanofibersCellulose NanocrystalsBacterial NanocelluloseCONTROLLED RELEASE OF DRUGSObtaining Pharmaceutical FormulasHot Melt ExtrusionSpray-DryingFreeze-DryingIn Vitro Drug Release TestNANOCELLULOSE IN THE PHARMACEUTICAL FIELDPharmaceutical Applications of Nanocellulose for Drug ReleaseNanocellulose Improving Drug SolubilityToxicological Tests in NanocelluloseFINAL CONSIDERATIONSACKNOWLEDGMENTSREFERENCESIntellectual Property Challenges and Opportunities for India's Nano-Bio-YatraINTRODUCTIONNANOMEDICINE: UNLIMITED POTENTIAL IN A SMALL PACKAGENANOMEDICINE DEVELOPMENTS IN INDIAEFFECTIVE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY (IP) PROTECTION FOR NANOMEDICINES - GIVING SCIENTISTS AND NANOMEDICINE ENTREPRENEURS THE TOOLS FOR SUCCESSREINTRODUCING PRODUCT PATENT PROTECTION FOR MEDICINE: THE WTO TRIPS AGREEMENTDATA PROTECTION/EXCLUSIVITY FOR COMMERCIALLY VALUABLE CLINICAL DATATAKING SOUNDINGS OF MODI GOVERNMENT'S IP REFORMSCONCLUSIONNOTESMinimizing Negative: Long-Term Occurrences in Nanotechnology DevelopmentINTRODUCTIONSafetyMaterial CharacterizationNanomaterial PropertiesPotential HazardsNanotechnology Safety (Nano-Safety)ISSUES REQUIRING NANO-SAFETYHow Are People Impacted?How to Address the Challenges? - EthicsWHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE?Material and EquipmentIMPLEMENTATION AND TRAINING OF NANO-SAFETYDeveloped Educational ProgramsNanotechnology Safety SeminarCollege/University CoursesTwo-Year ProgramCertificationSUMMARYACKNOWLEDGMENTSNOTESImpact of Nanomaterials on Human Health through/ via Food ChainINTRODUCTIONACCUMULATION OF NANOPARTICLES IN CROP PLANTSHUMAN EXPOSURE TO NANOMATERIALSToxicological Studies of Metallic NanoparticlesToxicological Studies of Carbon NanomaterialsCONCLUSION AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVESCONFLICT OF INTERESTACKNOWLEDGMENTSREFERENCESPatenting Issues in the Development of NanodrugsINTRODUCTIONPATENTSInnovation vs InventionIntellectual Property RightsPatents in Various CountriesLimitation of Patent RightsClassification of PatentabilityCriteria of PatentabilityTypes of Pharmaceutical Patents in IndiaTransfer of the Patent RightsNANOTECHNOLOGY IN DRUG DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENTEmerging Technology in MedicineSynthesis of NanoparticlesNanotoxicityNANOPARTICLES IN DRUG DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENTNanoparticlesParticles TherapySolid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs)Polymer NanoparticlesGold NanoparticlesIron Oxide NanoparticlesQuantum DotsNANOTECHNOLOGY PATENTS IN DRUGS AND DIAGNOSISNanocrystals Patents in Drug DeliveryIron Oxide Nanaoparticle Patents in Drug DeliveryGraphene Quantum Dots PatentsGQDs Patents in ImagingISSUES IN THE NANODRUG PATENTSMonitoring of NanodrugsChallenges Related to NanodrugsIssues in the Interactions of Nanodrucs and BiologyIssues Related to IPRIssues in the Standards of NanomaterialsCONCLUSIONACKNOWLEDGMENTSREFERENCESA Survey of Recent Nanotechnology-Related Patents for Treatment of TuberculosisINTRODUCTIONGLOBAL ТВ REPORTM. TUBERCULOSIS (MTB)DRUG RESISTANCEMDR (Multidruc-Resistant) ТВXDR (Extensively Drug-Resistant) ТВTDR (Totally Drug-Resistant) ТВMECHANISM OF INFECTIONCURRENTLY AVAILABLE TREATMENT FOR ТВFirst-Line Drug TherapySecond-Line Drug TherapyThird-Line DrugsBacteriophage Enzymes as Anti-ТВ AgentsNanotechnology ApproachNanoliposomes (NLPs)NanoparticlesLigand-Conjugated Anti-ТВ DrugMicroemulsionsSolid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs)Alginate Nanoparticles (ANPs)CONCLUSIONREFERENCESA Patent Landscape of the Emerging Nanomolecules for the Treatment of LeishmaniasisINTRODUCTIONIMMUNE BIOLOGY OF LEISHMANIASISTREATMENT OF LEISHMANIASIS AND ITS LIMITATIONSFailure of Treatment of LeishmaniasisAlternatives for the Treatment of Leishmaniasis by the Use of NanoparticlesCONCLUSIONFUTURE PROSPECTSACKNOWLEDGEMENTREFERENCESSection 4. Industrial NanotechnologyIntellectual Property Issues in Industrial NanotechnologyINTRODUCTIONNANOTECHNOLOGY IN MAJOR ECONOMIESUnited StatesEuropean UnionUnited KingdomINTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND RELATED CONCEPTSPatentsCopyrightTrademarkTrade SecretsTHE IMPORTANCE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN NANOTECHNOLOGYAPPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN INDUSTRYSanitation and Health Sector ProductsDust-Absorbing MaskHospital Disinfection (Nanobiocide)Sunscreens, Brightening, and Anti-Wrinkle CreamsAntibacterial Insoles Containing Silver NanoparticlesNanosilver Colloid Surface DisinfectantWater, Sewage, and Environment Sector ProductsHalophilic Ultrafiltration Nanocomposite MembranesUF, MF, and NF Ceramic MembranesDomestic Gray Water Purifier Using Ceramic Nanostructured MembranesPaint, Resin, and Composite ProductsAnticorrosion Powder Paint Containing Silica Nanoparticles (Improved Corrosion Resistance)Self-Cleaning Waterborne PaintAntibacterial Waterborne Acrylic PaintUV Curing Acrylate Coating Containing Silica NanoparticlesNanoclay Containing Traffic Color for Increased Abrasion ResistanceEpoxy Paint Containing Nanoscale Materials to Increase Corrosion ResistanceMasterbatch Containing Nanoparticles Polyethylene-Based with High Mechanical Properties (ADFIL 230)Antibacterial Polyamide (PA) Masterbatch Containing NanoparticlesNanocoatinc ProductsPhysical Coating Steam Device with Hybrid TechnologyIndustrial Coating Device with 1,600 Sputtering MethodNanocomposite Nanolayer Coatings, Ultra-Hard, Wear-Resistant, and Erosion-Resistant on the Surfaces of a Variety of Cutting and Shearing ToolsHard Nanoscale Coating on Aluminum Extrusion MoldingINFRINGEMENT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN NANOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRIESPatent InfringementCopyright InfringementTrademark InfringementTrade Secret MisappropriationREFERENCESNanotechnology in the Philippines: Status and Intellectual Property Rights IssuesINTRODUCTIONAPPLICATIONSPHILIPPINE ROADMAP ON NANOTECHNOLOGY (2017-2022)NANOTECHNOLOGY AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTSThe Increasing Trend of Upstream Research Patents in NanotechnologyThe Multidisciplinary Nature and Multi-Industry Application of Nanotechnology PatentsComplexity in Classifying Nanotechnology InventionsNANOTECHNOLOGY PATENTS IN THE PHILIPPINESREFERENCESMeasurement Techniques for Thermal Conductivity of NanofluidsINTRODUCTIONPREPARATION OF NANOFLUIDSMEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES FOR THERMAL CONDUCTIVITYTransient Hotwire MethodThermal Constants Analyzer TechniqueSteady-State Parallel-Plate Methodω MethodCONCLUSIONREFERENCESNanotechnology Industry: Scenario of Intellectual Property RightsINTRODUCTIONCriteria for Nanotechnology Patent InventionUNDERSTANDING PATENT POTENTIALITY AND LIMITATIONS IN THE NANOTECHNOLOGY DOMAINThe Importance of IPRThe Interdisciplinary Nature of the Nanotechnology DomainComplicated IP Issues in NanotechnologyDiversification of the Nanotechnology Field and Understanding Patent LawAdvantages of PatentsPatent Practice for NanotechnologySCENARIO OF NANOTECHNOLOGY PATENTS IN VARIOUS INDUSTRIES AND THEIR IMPACTPatents in Materials Science IndustryPatents in Nanomedicine and the Health IndustryPatents in the Biotechnology IndustryPatents in the Environment IndustryPatents in Agriculture and Food IndustryPatents in the Pharmaceutical IndustryPatent LandscapingScenario of Nanotechnology Patents at the Global LevelCONCLUSIONREFERENCESA Mass Approach towards Carbon Nanotubes in the Field of NanotechnologyCARBON NANOTUBESSTRUCTURE, SPECTRA, AND CHARACTERIZATIONTYPES OF CNTSPRODUCTION STRATEGIES FOR CNTSDISPERSION OF CNTS: THE BRIDGE FROM RAW CNTS TO RIPENED CNTSTYPES OF FUNCTIONALIZATION OF CNTSNon-Covalent FunctionalizationCovalent FunctionalizationCNT-BASED NANOCOMPOSITESTypes of CNT CompositesPolymer Matrix Nanocomposites (PMNC)Ceramic Matrix Nanocomposites (CMNC)Metal and Metal Oxide Matrix Nanocomposites (MMNC)CNTS: FINALLY MOVING OUT OF THE LAB; PATENTING AND INDUSTRIALIZATIONPatent Claim Validity and ScopeGlobal Sketch of Patenting CNTsProduction AnalysisCONCLUSIONREFERENCES
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