Material and Methods

Data and Sampling

We included all available phylogenetic studies up to 2010 that satisfied the three following conditions: (1) having a monophyletic group from New Caledonia with three species or more; (2) having extensive coverage of the geographic distribution of the group within New Caledonia's mainland; (3) having species represented in at least three out of the 16 selected geographical areas (see below). This resulted in 18 phylogenies encompassing both terrestrial and freshwater organisms (Table 1). The monophyletic clades in which New Caledonian species were found ranged from 3 to 59 species (mean 14.9, median 10.5) and in total these phylogenies included 269 species, all endemic to New Caledonia. They included organisms as diverse as insects, harvestmen, gastropods, vertebrates (geckos – Squamata), and vascular plants.

Table 1 Overview of the 18 phylogenies used in this study, with complementary references of species distribution

Key

Family

Genus

Reference

1

Blattaria

Blattidae

Angustonicus

Murienne (2006)

2

Blattaria

Blattidae

Lauraesilpha

Murienne et al. (2008)

3

Heteroptera

Tingidae

Cephalidiosus

Murienne et al. (2009)

Nobarnus

4

Orthoptera

Eneopteridae

Agnotecous

Desutter-Grandcolas and Robillard (2006)

5

Trichoptera

Hydrobiosidae

Xanthochorema

Espeland et al. (2008)

6

Trichoptera

Hydropsychidae

various

Espeland and Johanson (2010a)

7

Trichoptera

Ecnomidae

Agmina

Espeland and Johanson (2010b)

8

Coleoptera

Dytiscidae

Rhantus

Balke et al. (2007)

9

Opiliones

Troglosironidae

Troglosiro

Sharma and Giribet (2009)

10

Gastropoda

Hydrobiidae

various

Haase and Bouchet (1998)

11

Squamata

Scincidae

Marmorosphax

Sadlier et al. (2009)

12

Squamata

Scincidae

various

Sadlier et al. (2004)

13

Squamata

Diplodactylidae

Dierogekko

Bauer et al. (2006)

14

Squamata

Diplodactylidae

Eurydactylodes

Bauer et al. (2009)

15

Squamata

Diplodactylidae

Rhacodactylus

Good et al. (1997) and Bauer (1990)

16

Ericales

Sapotaceae

Planchonella

Swenson et al. (2007) and Munzinger and Swenson (2009)

17

Ericales

Sapotaceae

various

Munzinger and Swenson (2009), Swenson et al. (2008) and Swenson and Munzinger (2009, 2010a, b, c)

18

Ericales

Ebenaceae

Diospyros

Duangjai et al. (2009)

Key = the reference number that will be used in Tables 2 and 3 when referring to these studies

We considered 16 areas (sites) within New Caledonian mainland. This set of sites includes the very great majority of areas with remaining native forests and are distributed throughout the length of the island. These areas correspond to geographical entities with discrete boundaries, such as isolated mountains, or parts of large ridge systems or lowlands separated from the adjacent one by main valleys, rivers or lakes (Fig. 1). The basic condition for including an area in this analysis was the availability of at least five phylogenetic studies containing species represented at the site, and a minimum of ten species studied. Distributional data were collected from the original phylogenetic studies from the literature cited therein, and from the specialists working on the group in the region (Table 1). Species richness in this paper refers to the number of species from the 18 phylogenies occurring in each area. A species was considered a microendemic if it was recorded in an area and nowhere else. In total, our data set consists of 523 records of occurrence of a given species from a phylogeny at one of these 16 sites.

 
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