Results

Species richness of amphibians endemic to the Cerrado varied between 0 and 21 species per PU (Fig. 2). Species are concentrated in the center of the biome, in its northwestern portion in the contact zone with the Amazon, and in the extreme

Fig. 2 Species richness and total evolutionary distinctiveness of amphibian endemic to Cerrado per Planning Units (PUs)

southeastern region of the Espinhaço in the contact zone with the Atlantic Forest. The northeastern, southern and western Cerrado portions have low endemism, not exceeding four focal-species (Fig. 2). Total Evolutionary distinctiveness is also concentrated at the center, but with highest values at the Atlantic Forest contact zone (Espinhaço range), in the central western portion (Caiapônia plateau) and in some points at contact zone with Pantanal (Fig. 2).

Among the 82 species examined, over 80 % (66 species) have restricted distribution ranges (<6 million ha) and only 11 % (9 species) are widely distributed across the domain (>35 million ha). Sixty-five (79 %) have less than 20 % of its conservation target achieved being thus classified as gap species. Thirty-nine of these species are completely out of Protected Areas, all of them are restricted range species (<1.5 million ha) (Among the later, some more relictual species are also included, suchas Chiasmocleismehelyi, Oreobatesheterodactylus, O. remotus, Odontophrynus salvatori, Proceratophrys moratoi e P. cururu). Only four species endemic to the Cerrado were considered covered (Leptodactylus tapiti, Crossodactylus sp., Bokermannohyla ibitiguara and Phyllomedusa ayeaye). All of these covered species have restricted ranges (<0.25 million ha) with most of their distribution in protected areas, and 13 species can be considered as partial gaps, presenting between 23 and 57 % of their conservation goal achieved (Table 3).

In the conservation prioritization analysis the “best solution” (lower cost and higher efficiency) offered by Marxan selected 742 PUs (18.6 % of the biome area)

Table 3 Focal species evolutionary distinctiveness (ED), distribution area (million hectares), conservation goals, percentage of conservation goal achieved (area of distribution contained in protected areas), classified according to the percentage of goal achieved

Species

ED

Total area

Goal

%

Goal area

Area in PAs

%

achieved

Classification

Aromobatidae

Allobates brunneus

5.1

0.202

80

0.162

0.000

0.0

Gap

Allobates goianus

5.1

0.160

80

0.128

0.000

0.0

Gap

Allobates sp.

5.1

0.284

80

0.228

0.000

0.0

Gap

Bufonidae

Melanophryniscus fulvoguttatus

9.05

4.984

80

3.988

0.077

1.9

Gap

Rhinella cerradensis

4.67

35.147

10

3.515

0.699

19.9

Gap

Rhinella ocellata

4.67

98.528

10

9.853

3.953

40.1

Partial gap

Rhinella scitula

4.67

0.082

80

0.066

0.000

0.0

Gap

Rhinella sp.

4.67

0.118

80

0.095

0.000

0.0

Gap

Rhinella veredas

4.67

17.550

50

8.775

1.273

14.5

Gap

Craugastoridae

Barycholos ternetzi

16.47

75.998

10

7.600

2.140

28.2

Partial gap

Pristimantis dundeei

11.38

0.952

80

0.762

0.042

5.5

Gap

Oreobates crepitans

11.38

0.238

80

0.190

0.000

0.0

Gap

Oreobates heterodactylus

15.68

0.339

80

0.271

0.000

0.0

Gap

Oreobates remotus

15.68

0.378

80

0.302

0.056

18.7

Gap

Cycloramphidae

Thoropa megatympanum

13.5

5.359

80

4.287

0.280

6.5

Gap

Dendrobatidae

Ameerega berohoka

5.44

0.430

80

0.344

0.000

0.0

Gap

Ameerega braccata

5.44

0.238

80

0.190

0.000

0.0

Gap

Ameerega flavopicta

5.44

27.314

50

13.657

0.336

2.5

Gap

Ameerega picta

5.44

0.082

80

0.066

0.000

0.0

Gap

Hylidae

Aplastodicus sp.

13.82

0.222

80

0.178

0.000

0.0

Gap

Bokermannohyla alvarengai

11.74

5.118

80

4.095

0.231

5.6

Gap

Bokermannohyla ibitiguara

11.74

0.250

80

0.200

0.198

98.9

Covered

Bokermannohyla izecksohni

10.65

0.040

80

0.032

0.000

0.0

Gap

Bokermannohyla nanuzae

10.65

2.297

80

1.838

0.196

10.7

Gap

Bokermannohyla pseudopseudis

11.74

9.042

50

4.521

0.105

2.3

Gap

Bokermannohyla ravida

10.65

0.246

80

0.197

0.000

0.0

Gap

(continued)

Table 3 (continued)

Species

ED

Total area

Goal

%

Goal area

Area in PAs

%

achieved

Classification

Bokermannohyla saxicola

11.74

5.098

80

4.079

0.266

6.5

Gap

Bokermannohyla sazimai

10.65

2.482

80

1.985

0.198

10.0

Gap

Dendropsophus anataliasiasi

9.36

42.393

10

4.239

1.196

28.2

Partial gap

Dendropsophus araguaya

9.36

0.181

80

0.145

0.000

0.0

Gap

Dendropsophus cerradensis

9.36

0.036

80

0.029

0.000

0.0

Gap

Dendropsophus cruzi

9.36

108.799

10

10.880

3.599

33.1

Partial gap

Dendropsophus jimi

9.36

0.589

80

0.472

0.133

28.1

Partial gap

Dendropsophus rhea

9.36

0.225

80

0.180

0.000

0.0

Gap

Dendropsophus tritaeniatus

9.36

1.158

80

0.926

0.000

0.0

Gap

Hypsiboas botumirim

9.67

0.030

80

0.024

0.000

0.0

Gap

Hypsiboas buriti

9.67

0.565

80

0.452

0.000

0.0

Gap

Hypsiboas cipoensis

9.67

3.334

80

2.667

0.244

9.1

Gap

Hypsiboas ericae

9.67

0.149

80

0.119

0.000

0.0

Gap

Hypsiboas goianus

9.67

1.553

80

1.242

0.000

0.0

Gap

Hypsiboas jaguariaivensis

9.67

0.057

80

0.046

0.000

0.0

Gap

Hypsiboas phaeopleura

9.67

0.059

80

0.047

0.000

0.0

Gap

Hypsiboas stenocephalus

9.67

0.433

80

0.347

0.198

57.1

Partial gap

Hypsiboas sp.

11.19

22.337

50

11.169

0.971

8.7

Gap

Lysapsus caraya

12.6

0.129

80

0.104

0.000

0.0

Gap

Phasmahyla jandaia

12.19

0.169

80

0.135

0.032

23.4

Partial gap

Phyllomedusa ayeaye

10.77

0.257

80

0.206

0.198

96.2

Covered

Phyllomedusa centralis

10.77

0.195

80

0.156

0.000

0.0

Gap

Phyllomedusa megacephala

10.77

6.057

50

3.029

0.280

9.2

Gap

Phyllomedusa oreades

10.77

0.583

80

0.466

0.000

0.0

Gap

Pseudis tocantins

11.89

36.514

10

3.651

1.204

33.0

Partial gap

Scinax cabralensis

8.94

0.161

80

0.129

0.022

17.2

Gap

Scinax canastrensis

9.64

0.623

80

0.498

0.198

39.7

Partial gap

Scinax centralis

9.64

0.619

80

0.495

0.000

0.0

Gap

Scinax constrictus

8.94

88.952

10

8.895

3.562

40.0

Partial gap

(continued)

Table 3 (continued)

Species

ED

Total area

Goal

%

Goal area

Area in PAs

%

achieved

Classification

Scinax curicica

8.94

1.787

80

1.430

0.196

13.7

Gap

Scinax lutzorum

8.94

0.039

80

0.032

0.000

0.0

Gap

Scinax machadoi

9.64

0.777

80

0.622

0.042

6.8

Gap

Scinax maracaya

8.94

0.622

80

0.498

0.198

39.7

Partial gap

Scinax pinima

8.94

0.100

80

0.080

0.000

0.0

Gap

Scinax rogerioi

8.94

0.200

80

0.160

0.000

0.0

Gap

Scinax skaios

9.64

0.886

80

0.709

0.000

0.0

Gap

Scinax sp.

9.64

0.563

80

0.451

0.011

2.4

Gap

Scinax tigrinus

8.94

0.332

80

0.265

0.000

0.0

Gap

Trachycephalus mambaiensis

10.23

0.180

80

0.144

0.000

0.0

Gap

Hylodidae

Crossodactylus bokermanni

11.61

2.508

80

2.006

0.196

9.8

Gap

Crossodactylus sp.

13.05

0.243

80

0.194

0.198

101.7

Covered

Crossodactylus trachystomus

13.05

6.242

50

3.121

0.336

10.8

Gap

Hylodes otavioi

10.22

0.296

80

0.237

0.032

13.4

Gap

Leptodactylidae

Leptodactylus camaquara

11.85

3.296

80

2.637

0.218

8.3

Gap

Leptodactylus cunicularius

11.85

11.644

50

5.822

0.478

8.2

Gap

Leptodactylus pustulatus

14.26

50.906

10

5.091

1.196

23.5

Partial gap

Leptodactylus tapiti

11.85

0.065

80

0.052

0.065

125.0

Covered

Physalaemus deimaticus

13.22

0.207

80

0.166

0.000

0.0

Gap

Physalaemus evangelistai

12.49

1.366

80

1.093

0.061

5.6

Gap

Pleurodema fuscomaculatum

12.74

0.339

80

0.271

0.000

0.0

Gap

Pseudopaludicola mineira

13.52

0.623

80

0.499

0.000

0.0

Gap

Microhylidae

Chiasmocleis mehelyi

17.9

0.216

80

0.173

0.000

0.0

Gap

Odontophrynidae

Odontophrynus salvatori

14.97

0.657

80

0.526

0.000

0.0

Gap

Proceratophrys cururu

14.13

0.511

80

0.409

0.055

13.4

Gap

Proceratophrys goyana

14.13

47.302

10

4.730

2.084

44.1

Partial gap

Proceratophrys moratoi

14.13

0.323

80

0.259

0.000

0.0

Gap

Table 4 Category (frequency of selection) of the Planning Units (PU), number of PUs, area (million ha) and percentage of Cerrado corresponding to each category of PUs in the best solution of priority areas for Cerrado endemic species of anurans conservation

Category

Number of PUs

Area

%

Cerrado

Very high conservation value (10,000)

153

10.49

4.39

High conservation value (7501–9999)

232

13.63

5.71

Intermediate conservation value (5001–7500)

167

10.26

4.30

Low conservation value (1–5000)

190

10.02

4.20

Protected

50

5.87

2.46

Total selected

792

50.27

21.06

Not selected

3760

188.43

78.94

Total

4552

238.7

100

Fig. 3 Priority areas for the conservation of amphibians species endemic from Cerrado in 11 basins

as priorities. Among them, 153 PUs have a very high conservation value (selected in all 10,000 rounds) and 232 have high conservation value, matching 4.4 and 5.7 % of the biome area, respectively (Table 4). In contrast, 3760 PUs were not selected, representing 78.9 % of the Cerrado.

The selected areas, here termed as priorities for conservation of amphibian species endemic to the Cerrado, mostly occupy the central portion of the biome, following a northwest-southeast diagonal (Fig. 3). Some sparse areas can also be found at the contact with Pantanal biome. This set of areas is of fundamental importance

Table 5 Richness and endemicity of amphibians in major Cerrado basins. Cerrado endemic amphibians species richness, amphibians unique to each basin (Endemicity) species richness, and geomorphological units, which concentrate priority areas

Basin

Richness

Endemicity

Geomorphological units

São Francisco River

45

3

São Francisco baseline and tableland; Tocantins baseline; Espinhaço mountains

Paraná River

36

6

Canastra and Brazilian central uplands

Tocantins River

28

5

Tocantins and Araguaia rivers depressions and uplands; Brazilian central upland

Araguaia River

21

3

Araguaia, Tocantins and Pantanal rivers depressions

Costeira do Leste

21

1

Espinhaço mountains; Jequitinhonha and Pardo rivers uplands

Paraguai River

18

9

Paraguai and Guaporé rivers depressions and uplands; Guimarães upland

Mortes River

12

0

Tocantins and Araguaia rivers depressions

Parnaíba River

9

0

Meio Norte tableland and depressions

Xingu River

7

0

Tapajós River

6

0

Costeira do Nordeste Ocidental

4

0

Meio Norte tablelands

for achieving the conservation goals established. The prioritization analysis selected areas both in river valleys regions (below 400 m altitude), as well as elevated areas (above 1300 m). The selected areas include the depressions of the Araguaia, Tocantins and Paraguay rivers; the uplands in the São Francisco River, in western Bahia; the northern portion of the Central upland, and Canastra and Espinhaço uplands (Fig. 3, Table 5).

The priority areas are mainly concentrated in the Tocantins, Araguaia, São Francisco and Paraguay river basins and on the Costeira do Leste basin (Fig. 3). The São Francisco river basin has the largest number of frog species endemic to the Cerrado (45 species – Fig. 3, Table 5). Among them Bokermannohyla ravida, Scinax cabralensis and S. pinima occurs exclusively in this basin. The Paraná river basin is the second highest in richness, with 36 endemic amphibian species and is home to

6 species that occurs exclusively in this basin (Bokermannohyla izecksohni, Dendropsophus cerradensis, D. rhea, Hypsiboas jaguariaivensis, Proceratophrys moratoi and Scinax centralis). This basin is followed by the Tocantins river with 28 Cerrado endemic species and 5 species endemic to this basin (Allobates sp., Hypsiboas ericae, H. phaeopleura, Leptodactylus tapiti and Trachycephalus mambaiensis). The Paraguay river basin has the highest endemicity with nine species that occur exclusively there (Allobates bruneus, Ameerega braccata,

A. picta, Chiasmocleis mehelyi, Oreobates heterodactylus, Phyllomedusa centralis, pleurodema fuscomaculatum, Oreobates crepitans and Rhinella scitula). Another three species are endemic to the Araguaia river basin (Dendropsophus araguaya, Lysapsus caraya and Scinax lutzorum) and Hypsiboas botumirim is endemic to the Costeira do Leste basin.

 
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