The Routledge Handbook of Gender and Communication

I. Gendered lives and identitiesPERFORMING GENDER COMPLAINT AS AIRPORT ACTIVISM: Or: don’t get over it when it’s not overFeminism, hopeful resistance, and securityDiversity workersAirport security scanners 1: threatening security and airport activismVomiting as a feminist actAirport security scanners 2: airport activism and feeling sickComplaint as not coping and hopingAirport security scanners 3: feminist and furiousNotesBibliographyDENSE PARTICULARITIES: Race, spirituality, and queer/quare intersectionalitiesRace and critical race theory as gendered variablesQueer of color critique/disidentification/quare studies/intersectionalityApproaches to queer of color critiqueQuare studies: a counternarrative to queer theoryLinks between Johnson’s quare studies and Muñoz’ notion of disidentificationFurther notions of intersectionalityA spiritual interludeOn the intersections of (my) queer/quare and Catholic identityNot an “act of contrition”: a postscriptConclusionNotesBibliographyGAYSIAN FABULOSITY: Quare(ing) the normal and ordinaryQuare studies as a methodologyYouTube and gaysian narrativesGay anti-Asian racismStrategic essentialismGaysian criticality, neededGaysian fabulosity as a “quare” performative strategy: a conclusionNotesCOMMUNICATION, GENDER, AND CAREER IN MENA COUNTRIES: Navigating the push and pull of empowerment and exclusionTransnational feminist theoretical assumptionsThe push and pull of empowerment and exclusion in education and careerStrategies to navigate the empowerment-exclusion tensionFuture directionsConclusionNotesBibliographyCHICANO MASCULINITIESIntroductionChicanos/asMasculinities and hegemonic masculinityMarginalized masculinitiesMachismo and violenceMachismo as an “adaptive characteristic”Performing machismo and violenceRedefining queer sexualities and masculinities: a case studyChanging same-sex sexualities, changing masculinitiesInternacional: the Mexican American gay sexuality?Gay masculinities and the specter of borderland identityChicano masculinities, hybridity, and the borderlandCultural hybridity and borderland subjectivityBorderland masculinitiesConcluding remarks: intersectionalizing Chicano masculinities?NotesBibliographyA NEW MATERIALIST FRAMEWORK FOR ACTIVISM IN THE AGE OF MEDIATIZATION: The entanglement of bodies, objects, images, and affectsIntroductionFoundationsThe promise of affectIncongruent strands within affectWays, modes, and styles of examining affect and matterImage-affectsIllustrative examplesConclusionNotesBibliographyII. Visualizing genderINTERROGATING THE AWKWARD BLACK GIRL: Beyond controlling images of Black women in televised comediesControlling imagesBlack feminist thoughtEnacting the awkward Black girl: character synopsisFreddieSynclaire James-JonesRainbow JohnsonIssa DeeAwkward Black girl themesFacial expressionsQuirky responsesSexual insecurity/naivete“Schooled” on Black cultureBlack hairConclusionNotesBibliographyTHE MALE GAZE IN VISUAL CULTUREDefining the male gazeBeyond the male gazeTechnology and the gazeNotesBibliographyVIDA: Anti-colonial queer and feminist Web TV and the gaze of allyshipWeb TV and the post-auteurism of the showrunnerSituated and subjectifying: a post-realism from the marginsDigital labor and the gaze of allyshipConclusion: leaving home through the eyes of allyshipNotesBibliographyBODY IMAGE AND GLOBAL MEDIABody image: a global public health concernSocietal beauty idealsBeauty ideals for womenBeauty ideals for menCulture and beauty idealsPredictors of body dissatisfactionMedia and body imageTraditional media and body imageSocial media and body imageCorrelational researchExperimental researchLongitudinal researchMedia-focused body image interventionsIndividual-level interventionsMacro-level interventionsConclusionsNotesBibliographyBLOOD, BODIES, AND SHAME: Indian artists combating menstrual stigma on InstagramMenstrual stigma in IndiaChallenging menstrual stigmaCyberfeminism and feminist digital counterpublicsA note about methodAnalysisDigital art of @wallflowergirlsaysDigital art of @doodleodramaComparison: similarities, differences, and limitationsConcluding thoughtsNotesBibliographyMONSTROUS ERASURE: Quare femme (in)visibility in Get Out Bernadette Marie CalafellQuaring and transing Get Out“You ruined my house!” Heteronormative subservienceA radical elsewhere?NotesBibliographyQUEER AESTHETICS, PLAYFUL POLITICS, AND ETHICAL MASCULINITIES IN LUCA GUADAGNINO’S FILMIC ADAPTATION OF ANDRÉ ACIMAN’S CALL ME BY YOUR NAMEIntroductionStrange theoretical encounters and dramatic contingencies within a queer sensoriumThe becoming of an artful rhizome in CMBYNThe encounterQueer aesthetics and playful politics in CMBYNMulti-agentic rhythms in CMBYN ecology (environment and music)Nomadic families and happy abjects: the polyglottal and polymorphously perverse PerlmansHappy abjectsConclusionNotesBibliographyFEMINIST AND QUEER ARTS ACTIVISMProvocation and the politics of exclusionCritical mimicry and performanceEmotional ambiguity and the difficulty of intimacyConclusionNotesBibliographyIII. The politics of genderMAKING WAVES: Maxine Waters’s Black Feminist and Womanist rebuke of supremacist hegemonyFrom intersectional roots grow branches of perspective“Auntie Maxine” as a Womanish Black Feminist“Love is Struggle”. Love is Power: foregrounding intersectional allyship‘“You acting womanish,’ i.e., like a woman”: inhabiting and valuing the space between Black Feminism and Womanism s strengths“Audacious, courageous or willful fighting back“Responsible. In charge. Serious.” Reclaiming my timeReunification through Black Feminism and Womanism: a conclusionNotesBibliographyONE STEP FORWARD...: Gender, communication and the fragility of gender(ed) political progressGender, politics, and the media: grabbing pussy and the double-bindDis/organizing sex: protections (?) under the lawA rejection of civility to protest groups’ erasuresConclusionNotesBibliographyTHE SPECTER OF TRANS BODIES: Public and political discourse about “Bathroom Bills”On trans* positionalityThe impacts and implications of bathroom billsIn the name of privacy and security: the cases of North Carolina and TexasSocial media activism and its limitsConclusionNotesBibliographyRESEARCH ON GENDER AND POLITICAL RHETORIC: Masculinity, ingenuity, and the double bindFeminist foundationsMasculinity and the U.S. presidencyGender, 2008, and backlashHillary Clinton, authenticity, and paradoxBeyond the U.S. presidency: case studies of resistance and changeGender and international political rhetoricand beyond: stereotypes and intersectional rhetoricsIntersectional rhetoricsConclusionNotesBibliographyRESISTING ORIENTALIST/ ISLAMOPHOBIC FEMINISMS: (Re) Framing the politics of differenceDefining Orientalist/Islamophobic feminismTheories of the fleshFeminists of color theoretical revisions: toward bridgingA revisionist model for inclusive visibility: the bridge“9/11 ” as an event for converging and divergingMuslim feminist thoughtTheorizing Muslim feminism: between Orientalism and patriarchyConclusionNotesBibliographyNEGATIVE SPACES IN THE TRIANGLE OF GENDER, RELIGION, AND NEW MEDIA: A case study of the Ultra-Orthodox community in IsraelThe case study: the Ultra-Orthodox community in IsraelReligion and gender among the Ultra-Orthodox communityReligion and new media among the Ultra-Orthodox communityGender and media among the Ultra-Orthodox communityGender, religion, and media among the Ultra-Orthodox community: triangulation and negative spaceLiving the ideology: the gatekeepersLiving the practice: ideology of non-use and practices of limited usesConclusion: gender-religion-new media ?NotesBibliographyINVISIBLE IN/HUMANITY: Feminist epistemic ethics and rhetorical studiesEpistemic injusticeEpistemic justiceFeminist epistemic ethics, Obama, and rhetorical studiesConclusionNotesBibliographyIV. Gendered contexts and strategiesORGANIZATIONAL DISCOURSE AND SEXUALITY IN MALE-DOMINATED ORGANIZATIONAL SETTINGSKey terms and assumptionsAshcraft’s four frames and male-dominated organizationsFrame one: sexuality-based difference at work discourseFrame two: hegemonic sexuality organizational performanceFrame three: organizations and occupations as sexualized institutional formsFrame four: sexuality discourse as societal narrativeThe discourse of sexuality-based difference at work(Not so) objective standards and policiesPressure to conformSexuality and discourses of organizational performanceGender and sexuality as ongoing organizational performances“Doinggender”: performing the “professional” bodySexuality discourse as cultural narrativeReproduction of heterosexual relationshipsSex(lessness) as power(lessness)Normalizing and othering sexualityStrategies of resistance and sexuality discoursePower and resistanceConclusionNotesBibliographySHIFTING SANDS AND MOVING GOALPOSTS: Communicating gender in sportA call to storiesNarrative theory and storiesConstructing hegemonic masculinity through sportMoral accountabilityUsing stories in sportConcluding thoughts: shifting sands and moving goalpostsNotesBibliographyGENDER, SEXUALITY, AND HEALTH COMMUNICATION DURING THE ILLNESS EXPERIENCEIntroductionGender and sexuality-related constraints and effects in health careConstraints in women’s healthConstraints in men’s healthMen and mental healthConstraints in the health of the LGBTQ communityStrategies to manage dominant structures and behaviors in health careStrategies for patientsStrategies for practitionersRecommendations for future research and practicesConclusionNotesBibliographyWOMEN FIRST: Bumble™ as a model for managing online gendered conflictGender in organizational contextsGender structure theoryGendered online technoculturesConflict management strategiesChallenging technocultural norms: Whitney Wolfe Herd and BumbleConflict management strategies: organizational structureConflict management strategies: individual actionsBumble as a model for managing online gendered conflictConcluding thoughtsNotesBibliographySTRAIGHT (WHITE) WOMEN WRITING ABOUT MEN BONKING?: Complicating our understanding of gender and sexuality in fandomEarly understandings of gender and sexuality in fandomMen and masculinity in fandomSexual diversity in fandomNot just men bonking: understanding femslashDecentering whiteness and making space for fans of colorOn not transgressing and reworking normsConclusionNotesBibliographyV. Gendered violence and communicationIMAGING RAPE, IMAGINING WOMAN IN POPULAR INDIAN CINEMA: Victim, vigilante, or Goddess?Theorizing rape, reading representationContexts and constructsVictims, killers, or goddesses?Directions for future researchNotesReferencesSPEAK UP, SIS: Black women, race, and news coverage of the Me Too movementIntroductionU.S. news, news production, and framingBlacks and Black female representations in mediaMethodologyNews portrayals of Black women and Me Too movementPast news representations and frames of Black womenThe narrative construction of a Black women’s sexual victimization conundrum and cycle of silenceConclusionNotesDIGITAL TESTIMONIOS AND WITNESSING OF SALMA HAYEK AND AMERICA FERRERAS DISCLOSURES OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND ASSAULTDigital testimonios and digital disclosuresDigital testimonios: crafting Latina positionalityWitnessing in digital disclosuresConclusionNotesBibliographyFROM INNOCENTS TO EXPERTS: Queer and trans of color interventions into #MeTooCis/trans feminism and the queerness of sexual traumaGimme that “structural healing” (with apologies to Marvin Gaye)From innocents to expertsConclusionNotesBibliographySYMBOLIC ERASURE AS GENDERED VIOLENCE: The link between verbal and physical harmThe importance of a verbal-physical link in research on gendered violenceWords as weapons: symbols can maintain historical and cultural dominationTrauma studies: erasure is evidence of violenceEpistemic violence: erasure enables harmInternalized oppression and symbolic violence: verbal harms occupy psychesOrganizational and administrative violence: symbols institutionalize harmConclusionNotesBibliographySHERLOCK HOLMES AND THE CASE FOR TOXIC MASCULINITYIntroductionWhy “toxic” masculinity?Representations of toxic masculinity in the mediaVictorian toxicityUnpacking the toxicity of Sherlock HolmesBBC’s SherlockA case of inflated self-importanceToxicity in CBS’s ElementaryWhy is toxic masculinity still prevalent in media representations?NotesBibliographyVI. Gender advocacy in actionQUEER PRAXIS: The daily labors of love and agitationIntroduction: queer interconnectionsThe theoretical/personal splitNormative pollution/relational accountabilityQueer worldmaking: in time and placeConclusion: always a questionNotesBibliographyCOMMUNICATING GENDER ADVOCACY: Riding the fourth wave of feminismFeminist wavesFirst waveSecond wavePostfeminism and the third waveThe fourth wave of feminismFourth-wave feminism and social mediaSexual harassment and assault advocacyIntersectional and decolonial activismFourth-wave backlashConclusionNotesBibliographyTHE OPPOSITIONAL GAZE AS SPECTACLE: Feminist visual protest movements in ChinaIntroductionOppositional gaze and resistanceSpectacle and resistanceDigital feminist activism: China versus the United StatesThe oppositional gaze and unruly bodies: Chinese feminists in actionSocial media: sites of spectacular performancesConclusionNotesBibliographyREFUSING MASTERY, MASTERING REFUSAL: Critical communication pedagogy and genderGender in and against critical communication pedagogyEmerging commitments: refusing mastery, mastering refusalNotesBibliographyGENDER FUTURITY AT THE INTERSECTION OF BLACK LIVES MATTER AND AFROFUTURISMIntersectionalityThe movement for Black LivesAfrofuturismTransfuturismThe Transfuturism ProjectCentering trans embodiment in the AfrofutureTransfutures beyond technology and in the fleshGender futurityConclusionNotesLATINX FEMINIST ACTIVISM FOR THE SAFETY OF WOMEN JOURNALISTSIntroductionGender-based violenceViolence against women journalistsLegal conditionsThe effects of violence against women journalists on freedom of expressionActivism for the safety of women journalistsConclusionNotesReferencesPUSHING BOUNDARIES: Toward the development of a model for transing communication in (inter)cultural contextsTransing communicationReviewing research on transgender communicationThe first domain: low difference, low mediatednessLanguageIdentityRelationshipsThe second domain: low difference, high mediatednessIdentitySexual rightsSexual activismThe third domain: high difference, low mediatednessLanguageIdentityRelationshipsThe fourth domain: high difference, high mediatednessIdentitySexual rightsSexual activismTransing communication in (inter)cultural contexts: exploring new directions for researchPostscript 2019Current research on transgender communicationThe first domain: low difference, low mediatednessThe second domain: low difference, high mediatednessThe third domain: high difference, low mediatednessThe fourth domain: high difference, high mediatednessFurther transing communication: additional directions for future researchNotesBibliography
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