Material and Methods

The Neotropics

In this study we refer to the following specific areas within the Neotropical region (Fig. 2): (1) Central America, which extends from Panama to Mexico; (2) the western/northern Andes and (3) the eastern Andes, which usually exhibit distinct faunas;

Fig. 1 Two examples of mimicry rings named eurimedia and banjana-m, each one shared by a species of the three genera under interest

Fig. 2 Neotropical regions used in this study

(4) the upper Amazon along the eastern foothills of the Andes; (5) the lower Amazon;

(6) the Guiana shield; (7) the Cerrado, which separates the Amazon basin and the Atlantic Forest and (8) the Atlantic Forest, which extends along the south-east and southern Brazilian coast and adjacent inland regions.

Study Groups and Phylogenies

In this chapter we focus on three ithomiine genera (Table 1) for which nearly comprehensive calibrated molecular phylogenies are available in the literature: Ithomia (24 out of 25 extant species, Mallarino et al. 2005; Jiggins et al. 2006; Elias et al. 2009); Napeogenes (24 out of 24 extant species, Elias et al. 2009) and Oleria (42 out of 49 extant species, de-Silva et al. 2015; de-Silva et al. 2010). We analyse the three genera independently to assess the congruence of geographical diversity patterns among genera. All the trees used are ultrametric, with branch lengths proportional to time.

Mimicry Classification

Species were classified among 23 mimicry groups, following previous classification (e.g., Willmott and Mallet 2004; Jiggins et al. 2006; Elias et al. 2008, Table 1 and Fig. 1).

Table 1 List of the species of Ithomia, Napeogenes and Oleria, with their mimicry patterns. (Species may harbour multiple geographical races with different mimicry patterns)

Genus

Species

Mimicry pattern

Ithomia

adelinda

confusa, mestra, praxilla

Ithomia

agnosia

agnosia, lerida

Ithomia

amarilla

eurimedia

Ithomia

arduinna

agnosia, eurimedia

Ithomia

avella

ticida-m, banjana-m, panthyale

Ithomia

celemia

hermias, mamercus, parallelis

Ithomia

cleora

mantineus

Ithomia

diasia

amalda, lerida

Ithomia

drymo

lerida

Ithomia

eleonora

banjana-m

Ithomia

ellara

banjana-m

Ithomia

heraldica

mamercus

Ithomia

hyala

lerida

Ithomia

hymettia

agnosia, banjana-m

Ithomia

iphianassa

dilucida, hermias, idae

Ithomia

jucunda

amalda, lerida

Ithomia

lichyi

agnosia, lerida

Ithomia

patilla

lerida

Ithomia

praeithomia

banjana-m

Ithomia

pseudoagalla

dilucida

Ithomia

salapia

agnosia, derama, eurimedia

Ithomia

terra

agnosia, banjana-m, lerida

Ithomia

xenos

dilucida

Napeogenes

aethra

hermias

Napeogenes

apulia

mestra, ocna

Napeogenes

benigna

dilucida, panthyale

Napeogenes

cranto

dilucida, eurimedia

Napeogenes

duessa

duessa, eurimedia, mamercus

Napeogenes

flossina

panthyale

Napeogenes

glycera

mestra, ocna, praxilla

(continued)

Table 1 (continued)

Genus

Species

Mimicry pattern

Napeogenes

gracilis

ozia

Napeogenes

harbona

banjana-m, susiana, derasa, mestra, unknown

Napeogenes

inachia

eurimedia, hemixanthe

Napeogenes

larilla

banjana-m, hewitsoni, panthyale, theudelinda

Napeogenes

lycora

ozia, praxilla

Napeogenes

nsp1

ocna

Napeogenes

nsp2

banjana-m, ocna

Napeogenes

peridia

dilucida, excelsa, hecalesina, hermias

Napeogenes

pharo

confusa, derasa, eurimedia, ozia

Napeogenes

rhezia

eurimedia, hemixanthe, hermias, mamercus, mothone

Napeogenes

sodalis

agnosia

Napeogenes

stella

dilucida, hermias

Napeogenes

sulphureophila

ocna

Napeogenes

sylphis

agnosia, aureliana, egra, illinissa, lerida

Napeogenes

tolosa

dilucida, eurimedia, excelsa, mamercus

Napeogenes

verticilla

agnosia

Napeogenes

zurippa

hermias, mamercus, orestes

Oleria

aegle

egra, lerida

Oleria

agarista

aureliana, lerida, sinilia

Oleria

alexina

agnosia

Oleria

amalda

amalda, lerida

Oleria

antaxis

egra, lerida, sinilia

Oleria

aquata

lerida

Oleria

assimilis

angosia, aureliana, lerida

Oleria

astrea

lerida

Oleria

athalina

banjana-m, susiana

Oleria

attalia

mestra, susiana

Oleria

baizana

banjana-m, hewitsoni

Oleria

bioculata

agnosia

Oleria

boyeri

agnosia

Oleria

cyrene

banjana-m, susiana

Oleria

deronda

banjana-m, thabena-f

Oleria

derondina

banjana-m, thabena-f, panthyale

Oleria

didymaea

agnosia, lerida

(continued)

Table 1 (continued)

Genus

Species

Mimicry pattern

Oleria

enania

agnosia, aureliana, lerida

Oleria

estella

agnosia, quintina

Oleria

fasciata

banjana-m, susiana

Oleria

flora

egra, lerida

Oleria

fumata

banjana-m

Oleria

gunilla

agnosia, aureliana, illinissa, lerida, quintina, sinilia

Oleria

ilerdina

aureliana, illinissa, lerida

Oleria

makrena

agnosia, banjana-m

Oleria

onega

agnosia, aureliana, lerida, quintina

Oleria

padilla

agnosia, banjana-m

Oleria

paula

amalda, lerida

Oleria

phenomoe

agnosia

Oleria

quadrata

agnosia

Oleria

quintina

quintina

Oleria

radina

panthyale, banjana-m, unknown

Oleria

rubescens

lerida

Oleria

santineza

agnosia, banjana-m

Oleria

sexmaculata

aureliana, lerida, sinilia

Oleria

similigena

egra, lerida

Oleria

tigilla

agnosia, lerida

Oleria

tremona

banjana-m

Oleria

vicina

agnosia

Oleria

victorine

agnosia, lerida

Oleria

nsp

agnosia

Oleria

zelica

eurimedia

 
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