Material and Methods

Phylogenetic Data

To estimate phylogenetic diversity we used the plastid and nuclear phylogeny of Sarcolaenaceae produced by Haevermans et al. (in prep). The taxon sampling includes 47 species belonging to the family, for a total of 91 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). All ten genera were represented and 66 % of the species were sampled, thereby capturing most of the taxonomic and morphological/ecological diversity and covering the full geographic distribution of Sarcolaenaceae.

In addition to the 47 Sarcolaenaceae sampled, 6 species were selected from their sister group, Dipterocarpaceae, and 1 species from the next most-closely related family, Cistaceae (Dayanandan et al. 1999; Ducousso et al. 2004; Haevermans et al. in prep), all of which served as outgroup taxa. Sequence data were obtained from one nuclear (ITS) and three plastid (rbcL, psbA-trnH, and psaA-ORF170) markers (Haevermans et al. in prep). We performed a Bayesian dating analysis using BEAST v1.7.2 (Drummond et al. 2012) under the uncorrelated lognormal relaxed clock model with a Yule prior on speciation. Data were partitioned according to the number of DNA regions and we applied to each partition the GTR+ I+G substitution model, for reasons outlined by Huelsenbeck and Rannala (2004). An individual MCMC run was conducted for 20 × 106 generations, with sampling every 1,000 iterations, thus generating 20,000 chronograms. We discarded the first 25 % of samples as burn-in. Mixing of the chains and their convergence were verified in Tracer 1.4 (Rambaut and Drummond 2007). Using Logcombiner, we merged the remaining 15,000 trees and produced a maximum clade credibility (MCC) chronogram using TreeAnnotator. We applied two temporal constraints to calibrate the tree, one at the split between Dipterocarpaceae and Sarcolaenaceae based on Wikström et al. (2001), and another for the age of the stem-group of the clade comprising Leptolaena, Mediusella, Sarcolaena, Xerochlamys and Xyloolaena based on the estimated age of a fossil pollen attributable to this group (Coetzee and Muller 1984).

In order to assess the cladogenesis process in Sarcolaenaceae, we measured the degree of imbalance of the Sarcolaenaceae consensus tree topology using the R package apTreeshape (Bortolussi et al. 2006), in conjunction with the R package ape (Paradis et al. 2004). The imbalance was estimated by calculating the Colless's index (Mooers and Heard 1997). We compared this experimental value against those obtained for 500 simulated trees built under the Equal Rate Markov (ERM) Yule model or the PDA (Proportional to Distinguishable Arrangement) model in which each tree is equally probable (Mooers and Heard 1997), using the function colless.test() implemented in R package apTreeshape (Bortolussi et al. 2006). We used the “less” and “greater” alternatives to test whether the tree is less unbalanced or more unbalanced than predicted by the null model.

Measures and Analysis

We estimated the area of each species' geographic distribution by creating a minimum convex polygon based on 2148 occurrence points, 1899 of them corresponding to species included in the phylogeny (using ArcMap version 10.2). Occurrences of species with less than three points (for which polygons cannot not be generated) were directly assigned to ¼ degree grid cells (each covering 30 × 30 min) overlaid on a map of Madagascar. Then, a global polygon for the entire family was produced by overlaying all the species polygons, with limits calculated to exclude the sea. Species richness (the number of recorded species) was then calculated in each grid cell, along with two measures of phylogenetic diversity, Faith's PD (Faith 1992) and Mean Phylogenetic Diversity (MPD). PD is a group measure of phylogenetic diversity given by the minimum spanning path along the tree linking all species occurring in a grid cell (see Faith chapter “The PD Phylogenetic Diversity Framework: Linking Evolutionary History to Feature Diversity for Biodiversity Conservation”). For cells with only one species, the PD value corresponds to the branch length from the tip to the root of the tree. MPD is the mean distance (i.e., mean branch length) between all pairs of species occurring in a given grid cell; this measure provides information on phylogenetic relatedness of the set of species occurring in that cell, controlling for species richness. These two measures were computed using the R package picante (Kembel et al. 2010). The distributions of the three measures (species richness, PD and MPD) were then overlaid on the polygon of Sarcolaenaceae occurrence and plotted on a map of Madagascar, which results in parts of the island not being represented in the overall polygon. The resulting maps were compared to the most recent map of protected areas (PA) in Madagascar (atlas.rebioma. net/). This enabled us to identify whether the cells containing the highest level of PD correspond to those occupied by PAs, and to determine which, if any, cells with high values of PD are located out of the current coverage of Madagascar's PA network.

< Prev   CONTENTS   Next >