Impacts on Biodiversity Conservation
The first impact of these methodological breakthroughs in biodiversity conservation is the growing availability of phylogenies with adequate taxon and character sampling at fine scale. As a consequence, it will increase not only the possibility of identifying taxa and areas whose conservation will maximize phylogenetic diversity (Forest et al. 2007; Buerki et al. 2015; Soulebeau et al. chapter “Conservation of Phylogenetic Diversity in Madagascar's Largest Endemic Plant Family, Sarcolaenaceae”) or whose loss would contribute to major losses of our evolutionary heritage (Faith and Richards 2012; Faith 2015). It will also facilitate the transition across scales, a fundamental need well highlighted in international conservation guidelines (e.g. the Convention on Biological Diversity, “CBD”), and historically so difficult to achieve. For example, some targets can be established at a global scale based on a general phylogeny (for example, a phylogeny with samples of all genera or families), and a more detailed phylogeny with the regional diversification of the group (including for example a large sample of the species occurring in this region) will allow for establishing the areas to be protected for attainment of the broader target. This, associated with modern methods of Systematic Conservation Planning (Moilanen and Arponen 2011; Kukkala and Moilanen 2013; Faith chapter “Using Phylogenetic Dissimilarities Among Sites for Biodiversity Assessments and Conservation”) in which biological variables, including phylogenetic diversity can be considered along with costs, risks and return to investment, will certainly contribute to more explicit identification of conservation priorities and options (Pollock et al. 2015; Arponen and Zupan chapter “Representing Hotspots of Evolutionary History in Systematic Conservation Planning for European Mammals”; Silvano et al. chapter “Priorities for Conservation of the Evolutionary History of Amphibians in the Cerrado”). With these developments in mind, we will close this book by exploring an emerging local-to-regional-to-global challenge: the possibility of defining “planetary boundaries” for biodiversity on the basis of phylogenetic diversity.
Phylogenetic Diversity as a Basis for Defining “Planetary Boundaries” for Biodiversity
The idea that we are approaching a state of shift in the planet's environment, due to various human activities within the “Anthropocene” (Barnosky et al. 2012) is attracting attention in the scientific community. The definition and quantification of “planetary boundaries” is one approach to respond to this. “Planetary boundaries” (see Rockström et al. 2009; Steffen et al. 2015) refer to the idea of a “safe operating space” for humanity. The planetary boundaries framework considers processes relating to climate change, biodiversity loss, land-system change, biogeochemical flows, stratospheric ozone depletion, ocean acidification, freshwater use, atmospheric aerosol loading, and chemical pollution. The rationale is that exceeding the identified boundaries means that thresholds and undesirable changes threaten human well-being.
There has been much debate about how to define a meaningful boundary related to biodiversity. The current rate of extinctions and the corresponding biodiversity crisis suggest a possible focus on global extinction rates. However, recent work has focused more on phylogenetic and functional diversity (Faith et al. 2010; Mace et al. 2014; Steffen et al. 2015). These aspects may have a good regional-to-global scope, and appealing links to current and future well-being. These two key aspects for a biodiversity boundary are now being investigated through a global change international program called “Future Earth”. The PD calculus may provide ways to describe boundaries related to phylogenetic diversity “tipping points” (Faith et al. 2010). Such phylogenetic tipping points correspond to the irreversible loss of deep branches of the tree of life, following successive losses over time of descendent taxa. The tipping points, and corresponding boundaries, then link naturally to concerns about the loss of evolutionary or evosystem services, including option values (unanticipated future benefits for humans) and evolutionary potential. Such option values of biodiversity typically reflect global-scale benefits for future generations, and so they are a natural consideration for planetary boundaries. At the same time, phylogenetic diversity has local importance (e.g. for resilience and delivery of evosystem services) and may be part of regional-scale planning. Early warnings with respect to a phylogenetic planetary boundary may focus on the changing status of Phylogenetic Key Biodiversity Areas – those places on the planet that are outstanding in their current contribution to retaining global phylogenetic diversity (Brooks et al. 2015; Faith chapter “The Value of Phylogenetic Diversity”).
The interest in Planetary Boundaries also reminds us that there are “boundaries” in the utility of phylogeny for conservation. The PD measure (Faith 1992; Faith chapter “The Value of Phylogenetic Diversity”) is useful, but does not tell us all we need to know about functional traits – one of the other possible foci for a biodiversity boundary. Functional traits, by their nature, are not always well accounted for by the PD assumption that shared ancestry explains shared features. This assumption could be especially hard to justify if these traits are defined too intrinsically and are therefore not heritable (Grandcolas et al. 2010; Weiher et al. 2011). Therefore, an alternative model assuming that shared habitat explains shared traits may be useful. Such companion models to phylogenetic diversity are in development (Faith chapter “Using Phylogenetic Dissimilarities Among Sites for Biodiversity Assessments and Conservation”). At the global scale, such approaches could provide, for multiple taxonomic groups, a running report card on risk of loss of functional trait diversity. This would nicely complement the emerging use of a PD report card to assess risks associated with resilience-loss, tipping points and planetary boundaries.
These issues highlight the broader need to integrate phylogenetic diversity – and its associated option values – into the broader perspectives on sustainability and multiple needs of society. This book demonstrates that effective development of the measures – the toolbox – enables phylogenetic diversity to be “on the table” in these policy contexts.
Acknowledgements We thank Agathe Haevermans for kindly providing the drawings for the two figures of this chapter.
Open Access This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons AttributionNoncommercial 2.5 License (creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/) which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.
The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the work's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if such material is not included in the work's Creative Commons license and the respective action is not permitted by statutory regulation, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to duplicate, adapt or reproduce the material.