Menu
Home
Log in / Register
 
Home arrow Environment arrow Rewilding European Landscapes

Conclusions

Wilderness in Europe has been pushed into the high altitude areas of the mountain ranges and into the high latitude areas of Scandinavia. The metrics we use here agree on the general patterns of European wilderness but regional differences between our metrics emphasize the different factors that affect wilderness values regionally and locally (Fig. 2.1). New opportunities for wilderness expansion have appeared in Europe

Fig. 2.4  Species richness of European megafauna. We calculate it as the number of species of mammals with adult body mass equal or higher than 10 kg and birds with adult body mass equal or higher than 5 kg in each grid cell

due to farmland abandonment and a decrease of human presence can lead to a drop in several human footprint indicators and a recovery of natural trophic networks. Although management trade-offs have to be made in some places between intervening for a faster recovery and stepping back for an unrestrained adaptation of ecosystems, we favour an approach of minimum intervention and self-regulating ecosystems.

The next few decades are crucial for how wilderness will evolve in Europe. New research is necessary on how different dimensions of wilderness will change as a result of land use changes and what will be the effects on ecosystems and wildlife. Moreover, research is need on how to restore not only ecosystems but also the collective memory to encompass what wilderness may have been like, what it is and what it may or should be. This would help consolidate the crucial link between research on one hand, and management and policy on the other, an area that still requires substantial work (see Chap. 11). Challenges remain in bringing together rewilding views, and negotiating diverging social and economic interests. A focus on the benefits of natural ecosystem for the society at large can ease the tensions between different stakeholders in continental policy-making. From a global perspective, Europe will continue to be at the lower end of the wilderness continuum (Mittermeier et al. 2003) but favourable opportunities are arising at continental level to improve ecosystem functions and we should seize them wisely.

References

Alterio, N., Moller, H., & Ratz, H. (1998). Movements and habitat use of feral house cats Felis catus, stoats Mustela erminea and ferrets Mustela furo, in grassland surrounding Yelloweyed penguin Megadyptes antipodes breeding areas in spring. Biological Conservation, 83, 187–194.

Aplet, G., Thomson, J., & Wilbert, M. (2000). Indicators of wildness: Using attributes of the land to assess the context of wilderness. Proceedings: Wilderness Science in a Time of Change. Ogden (UT): USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. Proc. RMRS-P-15

Barnosky, A. D. (2008). Megafauna biomass tradeoff as a driver of quaternary and future extinctions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 11543–11548. doi:10.1073/ pnas.0801918105.

Becker, A., Whitfield, A. K., Cowley, P. D., et al. (2013). Potential effects of artificial light associated with anthropogenic infrastructure on the abundance and foraging behaviour of estuaryassociated fishes. Journal of Applied Ecology, 50, 43–50.

Bohn, U., Gollub, G., Hettwer, C., et al. (2000). Karte der natürlichen Vegetation Europas, Maßstab 1: 2,500,000.[Map of the Natural vegetation of Europe. Scale 1: 2,500,000]. Bonn: Bundesamt für Naturschutz.

Boldogh, S., Dobrosi, D., & Samu, P. (2007). The effects of the illumination of buildings on housedwelling bats and its conservation consequences. Acta Chiropterologica, 9, 527–534.

Bolliger, J., Kienast, F., Soliva, R., & Rutherford, G. (2007). Spatial sensitivity of species habitat patterns to scenarios of land use change (Switzerland). Landscape Ecology, 22, 773–789.

Brooks, T. M., Mittermeier, R. A., da Fonseca G. A., et al. (2006). Global biodiversity conservation priorities. Science, 313, 58.

Bryant, D., Nielsen, D., & Tangley, L. (1997). Last frontier forests: Ecosystems and economies on the edge. Washington, D. C.: World Resources Institute, Forest Frontiers Initiative.

Carruthers, J. (1995) The Kruger National Park: A social and political history. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press.

Carver, S. (2010). Mountains and wilderness. European Environment Agency (2010) Europe's ecological backbone: Recognising the true value of our mountains. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, pp. 192–201.

Carver S., Evans AJ., Fritz S. (2002). Wilderness attribute mapping in the United Kingdom.

International Journal of Wilderness 8, 24–29.

Carver, S., & Fritz, S. (1999). Mapping remote areas using GIS. Landscape character: Perspectives on management and change Natural Heritage of Scotland Series, HMSO, pp. 112–126.

Carver, S., Comber, A., McMorran, R., & Nutter, S. (2012). A GIS model for mapping spatial patterns and distribution of wild land in Scotland. Landscape and Urban Planning, 104, 395–409. Christensen, D. L., Herwig, B. R., Schindler, D. E., & Carpenter, S. R. (1996). Impacts of lakeshore residential development on coarse woody debris in north temperate lakes. Ecological

Applications, 6, 1143–1149.

Cinzano, P., Falchi, F., Elvidge, C. D., & Baugh, K. E. (2000). The artificial night sky brightness mapped from DMSP satellite Operational Linescan System measurements. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 318, 641–657.

Cole, D. N., & Landres, P. B. (1996). Threats to wilderness ecosystems: Impacts and research

needs. Ecological Applications, 6, 168–184.

Davies, T. W., Bennie, J., & Gaston, K. J. (2012). Street lighting changes the composition of invertebrate communities. Biology Letters, 8, 764–767.

Doll, C. N., Muller, J.-P., & Morley, J. G. (2006). Mapping regional economic activity from nighttime light satellite imagery. Ecological Economics, 57, 75–92.

Donlan, C. J., Berger, J., Bock, C. E., et al. (2006). Pleistocene rewilding: An optimistic agenda for twenty-first century conservation. The American Naturalist, 168, 660–681.

Enserink, M., & Vogel, G. (2006) The carnivore comeback. Science, 314, 7476–7749. European Council. (1979). Council Directive 79/409/EEC on the conservation of wild birds.

European Council. (1992). EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC). Consolidated Text. Office for Official Publication of The European Union. CONSLEG: 1992LOO43-01.05-2004.

European Environment Agency. (2012a). Natura 2000 data-the European network of protected sites. eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/natura-3. Accessed 5 July 2013.

European Environment Agency. (2012b). Nationally designated areas (CDDA). eea. europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/nationally-designated-areas-national-cdda-7. Accessed 5 July 2013.

European Parliament. (2009). Resolution on Wilderness in Europe.

Fritz, S., Carver, S., & See, L. (2000). New GIS approaches to wild land mapping in Europe. Proceedings of the Wilderness science in a time of change conference. USDA Forest Service, Missoula, Montana, pp. 120–127

Gaston, K. J., Jackson, S. F., Nagy, A., et al. (2008). Protected areas in Europe. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1134, 97–119.

Gaston, K. J., Bennie, J., Davies, T. W., & Hopkins, J. (2013). The ecological impacts of nighttime light pollution: A mechanistic appraisal. Biological Reviews, 88, 912–927.

Gauthreaux, S. A., Jr., Belser, C., Rich, C., & Longcore, T. (2006). Effects of artificial night lighting on migrating birds. In C. Rich & T. Longcore (Eds.) Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting (pp.67–93). Washington D.C.: Island Press.

Gillson, L., & Willis, K. J. (2004). As earth's testimonies tell: Wilderness conservation in a changing world. Ecology Letters, 7, 990–998.

Grilo, C., Bissonette, J. A., & Santos-Reis, M. (2009). Spatial-temporal patterns in Mediterranean carnivore road casualties: Consequences for mitigation. Biological Conservation, 142, 301–313.

Haberl, H., Schulz, N. B., Plutzar, C., et al. (2004). Human appropriation of net primary production and species diversity in agricultural landscapes. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 102, 213–218.

Haberl, H., Erb, K. H., Krausmann, F., et al. (2007). Quantifying and mapping the human appropriation of net primary production in earth's terrestrial ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 12942.

Habib, L., Bayne, E. M., & Boutin, S. (2007). Chronic industrial noise affects pairing success and age structure of ovenbirds Seiurus aurocapilla. Journal of Applied Ecology, 44, 176–184.

Hagemeijer, W. J., & Blair, M. J. (1997). The EBCC atlas of European breeding birds: Their distribution and abundance. London: T. & AD Poyser.

Halpern, B. S., Walbridge, S., Selkoe, K. A., et al. (2008). A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science, 319, 948–952.

Hansen, A. J., Knight, R. L., Marzluff, J. M., et al. (2005). Effects of exurban development on biodiversity: Patterns, mechanisms, and research needs. Ecological Applications, 15, 1893–1905. Hatt, B. E., Fletcher, T. D., Walsh, C. J., & Taylor, S. L. (2004). The influence of urban density and drainage infrastructure on the concentrations and loads of pollutants in small streams. Environ-

mental Management, 34, 112–124.

Heckenberger, M. J., Kuikuro, A., Kuikuro, U. T., et al. (2003). Amazonia 1492: Pristine forest or cultural parkland? Science, 301, 1710–1714.

Hochtl, F., Lehringer, S., & Konold, W. (2005). “Wilderness”: What it means when it becomes a reality-a case study from the southwestern Alps. Landscape and Urban Planning, 70, 85–95.

Hölker, F., Moss, T., Griefahn, B., et al. (2010a). The dark side of light: A transdisciplinary research agenda for light pollution policy. Ecology and Society, 15(4): 13.

Hölker, F., Wolter, C., Perkin, E. K., & Tockner, K. (2010b). Light pollution as a biodiversity threat. Trends in ecology & evolution, 25, 681–682.

Iosif, R., Rozylowicz, L., & Popescu, V. D. (2013). Modeling road mortality hotspots of Eastern Hermann's tortoise in Romania. Amphibia-Reptilia, 34, 163–172.

Jodoin, Y., Lavoie, C., Villeneuve, P., et al. (2008). Highways as corridors and habitats for the invasive common reed Phragmites australis in Quebec, Canada. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45, 459–466.

Johnson, C. N. (2009). Ecological consequences of Late Quaternary extinctions of megafauna.

Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 276, 2509–2519.

Jones, K. E., Bielby, J., Cardillo, M., et al. (2009). PanTHERIA: A species-level database of life history, ecology, and geography of extant and recently extinct mammals: Ecological Archives E090-184. Ecology, 90, 2648–2648.

Jones-Walters, L., & Čivić, K. (2010). Wilderness and biodiversity. Journal for Nature Conservation, 18, 338–339.

Kalamandeen, M., & Gillson, L. (2007). Demything “wilderness”: Implications for protected area designation and management. Biodiversity and Conservation, 16, 165–182.

Kristan, W. B. III, & Boarman, W. I. (2003). Spatial pattern of risk of common raven predation on desert tortoises. Ecology, 84, 2432–2443.

Kyba, C. C., Ruhtz, T., Fischer, J., & Hölker, F. (2011). Cloud coverage acts as an amplifier for ecological light pollution in urban ecosystems. PLoS ONE, 6, e17307.

Laiolo, P., & Tella, J. L. (2006). Fate of unproductive and unattractive habitats: Recent changes in Iberian steppes and their effects on endangered avifauna. Environmental Conservation, 33, 223–232.

Landres, P. B., Brunson, M. W., Merigliano, L., et al. (2000). Naturalness and wildness: The dilemma and irony of managing wilderness. Proceedings RMRS-P-15Proceedings RMRSP-15, 5, 377–381.

Lesslie, R. G., Mackey, B. G., & Preece, K. M. (1988). A computer-based method of wilderness evaluation. Environmental Conservation, 15, 225–232.

Lesslie, R. G., Maslen, A., Commission AH. (1995). National Wilderness Inventory Australia: Handbook of Procedures, Content, and Usage. Australian Government Pub. Service

Leu, M., Hanser, S. E., & Knick, S. T. (2008). The human footprint in the west: A large-scale analysis of anthropogenic impacts. Ecological Applications, 18, 1119–1139.

Longcore, T., & Rich, C. (2004). Ecological light pollution. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 2, 191–198.

Mackey, B. G., Lesslie, R. G., Lindenmayer, D. B., et al. (1998). The role of wilderness in nature conservation. Australia: Canberra.

Madhusudan, M. D. (2004). Recovery of wild large herbivores following livestock decline in a tropical Indian wildlife reserve. Journal of Applied Ecology, 41, 858–869.

Margules, C. R., & Pressey, R. L. (2000). Systematic conservation planning. Nature, 405, 243–253. Martin, V. G., Kormos, C. F., Zunino, F., et al. (2008). Wilderness Momentum in. Europe. International Journal of Wilderness, 14, 34–38.

Mitchell-Jones, A. J., Amori, G., Bogdanowicz, W., et al. (1999). The atlas of European mammals.

London: Academic.

Mittermeier, R. A., Mittermeier, C. G., Brooks, T. M., et al. (2003). Wilderness and biodiversity conservation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100, 10309.

Montevecchi, W. A., Rich, C., & Longcore, T. (2006). Influences of artificial light on marine birds. In C. Rich & T. Longcore (Eds.) Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting (pp.94–113). Washington D.C.: Island Press

Munroe, D. K., van Berkel D. B., Verburg, P. H., & Olson, J. L. (2013). Alternative trajectories of land abandonment: Causes, consequences and research challenges. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 5, 471–476.

Myers, N., Mittermeier, R. A., Mittermeier, C. G., et al. (2000). Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature, 403, 853–858.

Myers, P., Espinosa, R., Parr, C. S., et al. (2013). The Animal Diversity Web (online). an- imaldiversity.org. Accesssed 10 July 2013.

Naidoo, R., Balmford, A., Costanza, R., et al. (2008). Global mapping of ecosystem services and conservation priorities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 9495.

Nakicenovic, N., Alcamo, J., Davis, G., et al. (2000). Special report on emissions scenarios: A special report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (US), Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (US).

Nash, R. (2001) Wilderness and the American mind. London: Yale Nota Bene.

Navara, K. J., & Nelson, R. J. (2007). The dark side of light at night: Physiological, epidemiological,

and ecological consequences. Journal of pineal research, 43, 215–224.

NOAA National Geophysical Data Center EOG. (2012). VIIRS Nighttime Lights—2012.

Orlowski, G. (2005). Factors affecting road mortality of the Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica in farmland. Acta Ornithologica, 40, 117–125.

Papworth, S. K., Rist, J., Coad, L., & Milner-Gulland, E. J. (2009). Evidence for shifting baseline syndrome in conservation. Conservation Letters, 2, 93–100.

Paterson, J., Metzger, M., & Walz, A. (2012). Deliverable No: 9.1—The VOLANTE scenarios: Framework, storyline and drivers.

Patrick, D. A., Gibbs, J. P., Popescu, V. D., & Nelson, D. A. (2012). Multi-scale habitat-resistance models for predicting road mortality “hotspots” for turtles and amphibians. Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 7, 407–426.

Pereira, H. M., Leadley, P. W., Proença, V., et al. (2010). Scenarios for global biodiversity in the 21st century. Science, 330, 1496.

Pereira, H. M., Navarro, L. M., & Martins, I. S. (2012). Global biodiversity change: The bad, the good, and the unknown. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 37, 25–50. doi:10.1146/ annurev-environ-042911-093511.

Perkin, E. K., Hölker, F., Richardson, J. S., et al. (2011). The influence of artificial light on stream and riparian ecosystems: Questions, challenges, and perspectives. Ecosphere, 2, art122.

Philcox, C. K., Grogan, A. L., & Macdonald, D. W. (1999). Patterns of otter Lutra lutra road mortality in Britain. Journal of Applied Ecology, 36, 748–761.

Pressey, R. L., Humphries, C. J., Margules, C. R., et al. (1993). Beyond opportunism: Key principles for systematic reserve selection. Trends in ecology & evolution, 8, 124–128.

Proença, V., Pereira, H. M., & Vicente, L. (2010). Resistance to wildfire and early regeneration in natural broadleaved forest and pine plantation. Acta Oecologica, 36, 626–633.

Rentch, J. S., Fortney, R. H., Stephenson, S. L., et al. (2005). Vegetation–site relationships of roadside plant communities in West Virginia, USA. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42, 129–138. Rey Benayas, J. M., Martins, A., Nicolau, J. M., & Schulz, J. J. (2007). Abandonment of agricultural land: An overview of drivers and consequences. CAB reviews: Perspectives in agriculture,

veterinary science, nutrition and natural resources, 2, 1–14.

Rich, C., & Longcore, T. (2005). Ecological consequences of artificial night lighting. Washington, D.C.: Island Press

Ritchie, E. G., & Johnson, C. N. (2009). Predator interactions, mesopredator release and biodiversity conservation. Ecology letters, 12, 982–998.

Sanderson, E. W., Jaiteh, M., Levy, M. A., et al. (2002). The human footprint and the last of the wild. BioScience, 52, 891–904.

Schmitz, O. J. (2006). Predators have large effects on ecosystem properties by changing plant diversity, not plant biomass. Ecology, 87, 1432–1437.

Scottish, N. H. (2012). Wild land policy—Scottish Natural Heritage. snh.gov.uk/pro- tecting-scotlands-nature/looking-after-landscapes/landscape-policy-and-guidance/wild-land/ wild-land-policy/. Accessed 23 Aug 2013.

Seiler, A. (2005). Predicting locations of moose—Vehicle collisions in Sweden. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42, 371–382.

Sekercioglu, C. H. (2006). Increasing awareness of avian ecological function. Trends in Ecology

& Evolution, 21, 464–471.

Selva, N., Kreft, S., Kati, V., et al. (2011). Roadless and low-traffic areas as conservation targets in Europe. Environmental management, 48, 865–877.

Sheffield, L. M., Crait, J. R., Edge, W. D., & Wang, G. (2001). Response of American kestrels and gray-tailed voles to vegetation height and supplemental perches. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 79, 380–385.

Sirami, C., Brotons, L., Burfield, I., et al. (2008). Is land abandonment having an impact on biodiversity? A meta-analytical approach to bird distribution changes in the north-western Mediter ranean. Biological Conservation, 141, 450–459.

Sitch, S., Smith, B., Prentice, I. C., et al. (2003). Evaluation of ecosystem dynamics, plant geography and terrestrial carbon cycling in the LPJ dynamic global vegetation model. Global Change Biology, 9, 161–185.

Sydoriak, C. A., Allen, C. D., & Jacobs, B. F. (2000). Would ecological landscape restoration make the Bandelier Wilderness more or less of a wilderness. Proceedings: Wilderness science in a time of change conference, pp. 209–215.

Tabarelli, M., da Silva J. M. C., & Gascon, C. (2004). Forest fragmentation, synergisms and the impoverishment of neotropical forests. Biodiversity & Conservation, 13, 1419–1425.

Tacutu, R., Craig, T., Budovsky, A., et al. (2013). Human ageing genomic resources: Integrated databases and tools for the biology and genetics of ageing. Nucleic acids research, 41, D1027–D1033.

Valkama, J., Korpimäki, E., Arroyo, B., et al. (2005). Birds of prey as limiting factors of gamebird populations in Europe: A review. Biological Reviews, 80, 171–203.

Verburg, P. H., & Overmars, K. P. (2009). Combining top-down and bottom-up dynamics in land use modeling: Exploring the future of abandoned farmlands in Europe with the Dyna-CLUE model. Landscape ecology, 24, 1167–1181.

Vicente, J., Alves, P., Randin, C., et al. (2010). What drives invasibility? A multi-model inference test and spatial modelling of alien plant species richness patterns in northern Portugal. Ecography, 33, 1081–1092.

Vitousek, P. M., Aber, J. D., Goodale, C. L., & Aplet, G. H. (2000). Global change and wilderness science. Wilderness science in a time of change conference. RMRS-P-15-VOL-1, pp. 5–9.

Watson, J. E., Fuller, R. A., Watson, A. W., et al. (2009). Wilderness and future conservation priorities in Australia. Diversity and Distributions, 15, 1028–1036.

Wehn, S., Pedersen, B., & Hanssen, S. K. (2011). A comparison of influences of cattle, goat, sheep and reindeer on vegetation changes in mountain cultural landscapes in Norway. Landscape and Urban Planning, 102, 177–187.

Whittington, J., Hebblewhite, M., DeCesare, N. J., et al. (2011). Caribou encounters with wolves increase near roads and trails: A time-to-event approach. Journal of Applied Ecology, 48, 1535–1542.

Woolmer, G., Trombulak, S. C., Ray, J. C., et al. (2008). Rescaling the human footprint: A tool for conservation planning at an ecoregional scale. Landscape and Urban Planning, 87, 42–53.

 
Found a mistake? Please highlight the word and press Shift + Enter  
< Prev   CONTENTS   Next >
 
Subjects
Accounting
Business & Finance
Communication
Computer Science
Economics
Education
Engineering
Environment
Geography
Health
History
Language & Literature
Law
Management
Marketing
Mathematics
Political science
Philosophy
Psychology
Religion
Sociology
Travel