We conclude that, although agriculture is a major cause of environmental degradation, ecological restoration on agricultural land offers opportunities to reconcile agricultural production with enhancement of wildlife and ecosystem services other than production. Strategic revegetation by land sharing through environmentallyfriendly farming, namely planting woodland islets, hedgerows and isolated trees, has the potential to enhance agricultural production, other ecosystem services and wildlife at both the farmed field and landscape scale. Importantly, strategic revegetation has the potential to trigger larger-scale reforestation if the surrounding land is abandoned (rewilding). However, vegetation restoration by land separation, namely secondary succession following farmland abandonment and tree plantations, would provide these triple benefits only at the landscape or regional scales as this restoration type is at the expense of field-level agricultural production. At the landscape level, restoration of riparian vegetation is a priority whereas strategic revegation of road sides and roundabouts should be carefully planned to avoid risks for wildlife and drivers. Beyond scientific and technical research, an increase in such restoration projects is needed if we want to halt environmental degradation and biodiversity loss and meet the CBD and UE goals (see Chap. 11). We propose widespread expansion of highly specific actions to benefit wildlife and specific ecosystem services, particularly habitat provision and seed dispersion for triggering passive restoration after land abandonment leading to rewilding. Financial support, public awareness, education and training, particularly of farmers, are necessary to accomplish such objectives.
Barnes, G., & Williamson, T. (2006). Hedgerow history: Ecology, history and landscape character. Macclesfield: Windgather Press.
Blanco, J. C., & Cortés, Y. (2007). Dispersal patterns, social structure and mortality of wolves living in agricultural habitats in Spain. Journal of Zoology, 273, 114–124.
Bremer, L. L., & Farley, K. A. (2010). Does plantation forestry restore biodiversity or create green deserts? A synthesis of the effects of land-use transitions on plant species richness. Biodiversity Conservation, 19, 3893–3915.
Bullock, J. M., & Moy, I. L. (2004). Plants as seed traps: Inter-specific interference with dispersal.
Acta Oecologica, 25, 35–41.
Bullock, J. M., Aronson, J., Newton, A., C., Pywell, R. F., & Rey-Benayas, J. M. (2011). Restoration of ecosystem services and biodiversity: Conflicts and opportunities. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 26, 541–549.
Corbin, J. D., & Holl, K. D. (2012). Applied nucleation as a forest restoration strategy. Forest Ecology and Management, 265, 37–46.
Cuesta, B., Villar-Salvador, P., Puértolas, J., Rey Benayas, J. M., & Michalet, R. (2010). Facilitation of Quercus ilex in Mediterranean shrubland is explained by both direct and indirect interactions mediated by herbs. Journal of Ecology, 98, 687–696.
de Snoo, G. R., Herzon, I., Staats, H., Burton, R. J. F., Schindler, S., van Dijk, J., Lokhorst, A. M., Bullock, J. M., Lobley, M., Wrbka, T., Schwarz, G., & Musters, C. J. M. (2013). Toward effective nature conservation on farmland: Making farmers matter. Conservation Letters, 6, 66–72. Debain, S., Chadaeuf, J., Curt, T., Kunstler, G., & Lepart, J. (2007). Comparing effective dispersal in expanding population of Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra in calcareous grassland. Canadian
Journal of Forest Research, 37, 705–718.
DeMars, C. A., Rosenberg, D. K., & Fontaine, J. B. (2010). Multi-scale factors affecting bird use of isolated remnant oak trees in agro-ecosystems. Biological Conservation, 143, 1485–1492.
Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development. (2012). Rural development in the European Union. Statistical and Economic Information. Report 2012. Brussels.
Dovciak, M., Hrivnak, R., Ujhazy, K., & Gomory, D. (2008). Seed rain and environmental controls on invasion of Picea abies into grassland. Plant Ecology, 194, 135–148.
Dwyer, J. M., Fensham, R. J., & Buckley, Y. M. (2010). Agricultural legacy, climate, and soil influence the restoration and carbon potential of woody regrowth in Australia. Ecological Applications, 20, 1838–1850.
Ellis, E. C., & Ramankutty, N. (2008). Putting people in the map: Anthropogenic biomes of the world. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 6, 439–447.
European Bird Census Council. (2010). Pan-European common bird monitoring scheme (on line). ebcc.info/. Accessed 28 Feb 2012.
Fahrig, L., & Rytwinski, T. (2009). Effects of roads on animal abundance: An empirical review and synthesis. Ecology and Society, 14(1), 21.
FAOSTAT. faostat3.fao.org/home/index.html#DOWNLOAD. Accessed 9 April 2013.
Felton, A., Knight, E., Wood, J., Zammit, C., & Lindenmayer, D. (2010). A meta-analysis of fauna and flora species richness and abundance in plantations and pasture lands. Biological Conservation, 143, 545–554.
Fischer, J., Brosi, B., Daily, G. C., Ehrlich, P. R., Goldman, R., Goldstein, J., Lindenmayer, D. B., Manning, A. D., Mooney, H. A., Pejchar, L., Ranganathan, J., & Tallis, H. (2008). Should agricultural policies encourage land sparing or wildlife-friendly farming? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 6, 382–387.
Fischer, J., Stott, J., & Law, B. S. (2010). The disproportionate value of scattered trees. Biological Conservations, 143, 1564–1567.
Flynn, D. F. B., Gogol-Prokurat, M., Nogeire, T., Molinari, N., Richers, B. T., Lin, B. B., Simpson, N., Mayfield, M. M., & DeClerck, F. (2009). Loss of functional diversity under land use intensification across multiple taxa. Ecology Letters, 12, 22–33.
Foley, J. A., DeFries, R., Asner, G. P., Barford, C., Bonan, G., Carpenter, S. R., Chapin, F. S., Coe,M. T., Daily, G. C., Gibbs, H. K., Helkowski, J. H., Holloway, T., Howard, E. A., Kucharik, C. J., Monfreda, C., Patz, J. A., Prentice, I. C., Ramankutty, N., & Snyder, P. K. (2005). Global consequences of land use. Science, 309, 570–574.
Foley, J. A., Ramankutty, N., Brauman, K. A., Cassidy, E. S., Gerber, J. S., Johnston, M., Mueller, N. D., O'Connell, C., Ray, D. K., West, P. C., Balzer, C. B., Bennett, L. M., Carpenter, S. R., Hill, J., Monfreda, C., Polasky, S., Rockstrom, J., Sheehan, J., Siebert, S., Tilman, D., & Zaks,
D. P. M. (2011). Solutions for a cultivated planet. Nature, 478, 337–342.
Forget, G., Carreau, C., Le Coeur, D., & Bernez, I. (2013). Ecological restoration of headwaters in a rural landscape (Normandy, France): A passive approach taking hedge networks into account for riparian tree recruitment. Restoration Ecology, 21, 96–104.
García, D., Zamora, R., & Amico, G. (2010). Birds as suppliers of seed dispersal in temperate ecosystems: Conservation guidelines from real-world landscapes. Conservation Biology, 24, 1070–1079.
Hodder, K. H., & Bullock, J. M. (2010). Nature without nurture. In M. Hall (Ed.), Restoration and history: The search for a usable environmental Past (pp. 223–235). Abingdon: Routledge. Hooftman, D. A. P., & Bullock, J. M. (2012). Mapping to inform conservation: A case study of changes in semi-natural habitats and their connectivity over 70 years. Biological Conservation,
International Union for Conservation of Nature. (2012). IUCN Guidelines for reintroductions and other conservation translocations. issg.org/pdf/publications/Translocation-Guide- lines-2012.pdf. Accessed 4 April 2013.
Jackson, L. E., Pascual, U., & Hodgkin, T. (2007). Utilizing and conserving agrobiodiversity in agricultural landscapes. Agriculture, Ecosystems and the Environment, 121, 196–210.
Jensen, T. S., & Nielsen, O. F. (1986). Rodents as seed dispersers in a heath oak wood succession.
Oecologia, 70, 214–221.
Jordano, P., Garcia, C., Godoy, J. A., & Garcia-Castano, J. L. (2007). Differential contribution of frugivores to complex seed dispersal patterns. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 3278–3282.
Kleijn, D., Baquero, R. A., Clough, Y., Díaz, M., Esteban, J., Fernández, F., Gabriel, D., Herzog, F., Holzschuh, A., Jöhl, R., Knop, E., Kruess, A., Marshall, E. J., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Tscharntke, T., Verhulst, J., West, T. M., & Yela, J. L. (2006). Mixed biodiversity benefits of agro-environment schemes in five European countries. Ecology Letters, 9, 243–254.
Kohler, F., Vandenberghe, C., Imstepf, R., & Gillet, F. (2008). Restoration of threatened arable weed communities in abandoned mountainous crop fields. Restoration Ecology, 19, 62–69.
Kollmann, J., & Schill, H. P. (1996). Spatial patterns of dispersal, seed predation and germination during colonization of abandoned grassland by Quercus petraea and Corylus avellana. Vegetatio, 125, 193–205.
Kunstler, G., Thuiller, W., Curt, T., Bouchaud, M., Jouvie, R., Deruette, F., & Lepart, J. (2007). Fagus sylvatica L. recruitment across a fragmented Mediterranean Landscape, importance of long distance effective dispersal, abiotic conditions and biotic interactions. Diversity and Distributions, 13, 799–807.
Laborde, J., & Thompson, K. (2009). Post-dispersal fate of hazel ( Corylus avellana) nuts and consequences for the management and conservation of scrub-grassland mosaics. Biological Conservation, 142, 974–981.
Noordijk, J., Musters, C. J. M., van Dijk, J., & de Snoo GR. (2010). Invertebrates in field margins: taxonomic group diversity and functional group abundance in relation to age. Biodiversity Conservation, 19, 3255–3268.
Oliver, T., Roy, D. B., Hill, J. K., Brereton, T., & Thomas, C. D. (2010). Heterogeneous landscapes promote population stability. Ecology Letters, 13, 473–484.
Ozinga, W. A., Romermann, C., Bekker, R. M., Prinzing, A., Tamis, W. L. M., Schaminee, J. H. J., Hennekens, S. M., Thompson, K., Poschlod, P., Kleyer, M., Bakker, J. P., & van Groenendael,
J. M. (2009). Dispersal failure contributes to plant losses in NW Europe. Ecology Letters, 12,
Pereira, M., & Rodríguez, A. (2010). Conservation value of linear woody remnants for two forest carnivores in a Mediterranean agricultural landscape. Journal of Applied Ecology, 47, 611–620. Phalan, B., Onial, M., Balmford, A., & Green, R. E. (2011). Reconciling food production and biodiversity conservation: Land sharing and land sparing compared. Science, 333, 1289–1291.
Pilgrim, E. S., Macleod, C. J. A., Blackwell, M. S. A., Bol, R., Hogan, D. V., Chadwick, D. R., Cardenas, L., Misselbrook, T. H., Haygarth, P. M., Brazier, R. E., Hobbs, P., Hodgson, C., Jarvis, S., Dungait, J., Murray, P. J., Firbank, L. G., & Donald, L. S. (2010). Interactions among agricultural production and other ecosystem services delivered from European temperate grassland systems. Advances in Agronomy, 109, 117–154.
Poggio, S. L., Chaneton, E. J., & Ghersa, C. M. (2010). Landscape complexity differentially affects alpha, beta, and gamma diversity of plants occurring in fencerows and crop fields. Biological Conservation, 143, 2477–2486.
Pons, J., & Pausas, J. G. (2007). Acorn dispersal estimated by radio-tracking. Oecologia, 153,
Reino, L., Porto, M., Morgado, R., Carvalho, F., Mira, A., & Beja, P. (2010). Does afforestation increase bird nest predation risk in surrounding farmland? Forest Ecology and Management, 260, 1359–1366.
Rey Benayas, J. M. (2012). Restauración de campos agrícolas sin competir por el uso de la tierra para aumentar su biodiversidad y servicios ecosistémicos. Investigación Ambiental. Ciencia y Política Pública, 4, 101–110.
Rey Benayas, J. M., & Bullock, J. M. (2012). Restoration of biodiversity and ecosystem services on agricultural land. Ecosystems, 15, 883–889.
Rey Benayas, J. M., Martins, A., Nicolau, J. M., & Schulz, J. (2007). Abandonment of agricultural land: an overview of drivrs and consequences. Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Sciences, Nutrition and Natural Resources, 2(057), 1–14.
Rey Benayas, J. M., Bullock, J. M., & Newton, A. C. (2008). Creating woodland islets to reconcile ecological restoration, conservation, and agricultural land use. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 6, 329–336.
Rey Benayas, J. M., Galván, I., & Carrascal, L. M. (2010). Differential effects of vegetation restoration in Mediterranean abandoned cropland by secondary succession and pine plantations on bird assemblages. Forest Ecology and Management, 260, 87–95.
Romero-Calcerrada, R., & Perry, G. L. W. (2004). The role of land abandonment in landscape dynamics in the SPA 'Encinares del rio Alberche y Cofio, Central Spain, 1984–1999. Landscape and Urban Planning, 66, 217–232.
Rounsevell, M. D. A., Ewert, F., Reginster, I., Leemans, R., & Carter, T. R. (2005). Future scenarios of European agricultural land use II. Projecting changes in cropland and grassland. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 107, 117–135.
Sánchez-Oliver, J., Rey Benayas, J. M., & Carrascal, L. M. (2014). Differential effects of local habitat and landscape characteristics on bird communities in Mediterranean afforestations motivated by the EU Common Agrarian Policy. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 60, 135–143.
Stanturf, J. A., Palik, B. J., & Dumroese, R. K. (2014). Contemporary forest restoration: A review emphasizing function. Forest Ecology and Management, 331, 292–323.
Stoyan, D., & Wagner, S. (2001). Estimating the fruit dispersion of anemochorous forest trees.
Ecological Modeling, 45, 35–47.
TEEB. (2010). The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity: Mainstreaming the economics of nature: A synthesis of the approach, conclusions and recommendations of TEEB. teebweb.org/. Accessed 10 Sep 2013.
Thompson, J. R., Moilanen, A., Vesk, P. A., Bennett, A. F., & Mac Nally, R. (2009). Where and when to revegetate?: A quantitative method for scheduling landscape reconstruction. Ecological Applications, 19, 817–827.
Tscharntke, T., Klein, A. M., Kruess, A., Steffan-Dewenter, I., & Thies, C. (2005). Landscape perspectives on agricultural intensification and biodiversity-ecosystem service management. Ecology Letters, 8, 857–874.