Conclusions

We conclude that, although agriculture is a major cause of environmental degradation, ecological restoration on agricultural land offers opportunities to reconcile agricultural production with enhancement of wildlife and ecosystem services other than production. Strategic revegetation by land sharing through environmentallyfriendly farming, namely planting woodland islets, hedgerows and isolated trees, has the potential to enhance agricultural production, other ecosystem services and wildlife at both the farmed field and landscape scale. Importantly, strategic revegetation has the potential to trigger larger-scale reforestation if the surrounding land is abandoned (rewilding). However, vegetation restoration by land separation, namely secondary succession following farmland abandonment and tree plantations, would provide these triple benefits only at the landscape or regional scales as this restoration type is at the expense of field-level agricultural production. At the landscape level, restoration of riparian vegetation is a priority whereas strategic revegation of road sides and roundabouts should be carefully planned to avoid risks for wildlife and drivers. Beyond scientific and technical research, an increase in such restoration projects is needed if we want to halt environmental degradation and biodiversity loss and meet the CBD and UE goals (see Chap. 11). We propose widespread expansion of highly specific actions to benefit wildlife and specific ecosystem services, particularly habitat provision and seed dispersion for triggering passive restoration after land abandonment leading to rewilding. Financial support, public awareness, education and training, particularly of farmers, are necessary to accomplish such objectives.

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