Concluding Remarks

Millennia of human activities have progressively replaced natural disturbances, such as herbivory and fire, to shape the European landscapes. Maintaining disturbance-dependent habitats after the withdrawal of those human activities is a difficult restoration process. It can be guided by knowledge of the past (Vera 2000; Gillson and Willis 2004; Willis and Birks 2006; Sandom et al. 2013b), and by improving our ability to understand ecosystem dynamics and projecting potential restoration pathways. This means identifying the most desirable outcome in terms of both biodiversity and resilience. Nonetheless, besides human impacts on the landscapes, other biotic and abiotic alterations have also led to the current ecosystem composition. The climate has changed during the past millennium and some species have gone extinct while others have invaded, all these changes influencing ecological processes (Gillson and Willis 2004; Hodder et al. 2009). The interaction between human pressure and natural changes (e.g. non-anthropogenic climatic changes) could also have led to the crossing of tipping points (Gillson and Willis 2004; Kaplan et al. 2010; Leadley et al. 2014). Returning the landscapes to their historical conditions would thus be unachievable, if even desirable. This means that the baseline must shift, not only for the policy makers and the public who attribute cultural values to a relatively recent landscape (Vera 2009), but also for scientists and conservationist, some of which, on the contrary, having too long of a memory of the European landscape.

An additional concern emerges with farmland abandonment when herbivores also become functionally extinct, following a decrease in agricultural activities (Donlan et al. 2006), while the artificial fire regime is altered. Hence, in the early stages after land abandonment, the “restoration goals” must be defined to determine the set of biotic and abiotic factors that might be managed (Byers et al. 2006). Sup-

porting local populations of wild herbivores, reintroducing them in places where they are absent and using prescribed burning can constitute the first steps towards restoring ecological processes.

For instance, the choice between natural recolonizations, reinforcement of local populations or reintroductions will depend on the current distribution and abundances of the herbivore communities. In areas of Central Europe, one might expect that the diversity of herbivores is high enough to allow for recolonizations, while in Western and Southern Europe, active introduction might be needed (Fig. 8.4). In all cases, conservation measures, legislation and reduced human pressure are necessary for the establishment of viable populations (Table 8.2).

When rewilding is meant to lead to ecological restoration, reintroductions should be one of the tools rather than a goal per se. Moreover, historical baselines should be treated as guidelines, not as objectives. In other words, rather than focusing on the conservation of a given set of species or habitats, rewilding will focus on the restoration and conservation of natural processes, with human intervention reduced to its minimum.

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