Class, Gender and Migration: Return Flows between Mexico and the United States in Times of Crisis

Understanding accelerated and return migration in Central Mexico: migration, class and genderAccelerated migration as a symptom of restructuring of both the Mexican and US economiesAfter accelerated migration: conceptualizing returnNew global migratory order and new formations of class and genderClassGenderEthnographic research in Mexico and the United StatesStructure of the bookNotesReferencesRural Central Mexico and the East Coast of the United States: articulating surplus labor and restructured economiesIntroductionThe destruction of rural MexicoPahuatlánZapotitlanEconomic restructuring of the East Coast of the United StatesGeographic and demographic changes in migratory flowsPahuatecos/as in Raleigh-Durham Corridor, North CarolinaZapotitecos/as in New YorkThe end of accelerated migration: financial crisis and the criminalization of immigrationEconomic and financial crisisImmigration policies and migrant flows: regulating and containing mobile surplus laborComparing accelerated migration and return in Pahuatlan and ZapotitlanFirst international migrationGender and first migrationGender and return migrationNotesReferencesDisarticulation of agriculture, transition to a service economy in the Sierra Norte of Puebla and accelerated migration to the Nuevo New SouthIntroductionThe background of an accelerated migration flowTransitions in migratory patternsPahuatecan migration from a feminist perspectiveFemale wage labor and stratified reproduction in DurhamAleida, pride and perseveranceElena: migration to the North as maternal sacrificeLucia, a model workerAmanda’s lonelinessConclusionsReferences“I was motivated to do everything”: undocumented “entrepreneurs of the self” in New YorkIntroductionWe lived from the rocks! Onyx and labor in ZapotitlanThe lost decade: economic crisis and the decline of onyxGarment factories in Zapotitlán: the “complementarity” of women’s laborI would clean the house quickly: domestic work and the reproduction of rural households“Progress” in worsening conditions: the emergence of international migration in ZapotitlánThe collapse of onyx and the devaluation of the peso: the acceleration of international migration“Learn how to sew so you can get a job”: Zapotitecas and labor market insertion in New YorkEva: garment factories in New York and tristeza (sadness)Gilda: “fast hands” and “doing the work of two people”Carolina: “I have worked like a man!”Beatriz: “even if you don’t know how to do it, just say you do”“Illegality” and entrepreneurialism: constructing subjects at the intersection of techniques of power and of the selfNotesReferencesDeceleration of migration and the selectivity of return migration in the Northern Sierra of PueblaIntroductionCrisis, return and social reproductionThe selectivity of staying-retutnWhat did they find upon their return?Return to PahuatlanReturn migration without dependentsFamily return migrationUnified family returnSegmented family returnConclusionsNotesReferences“In Zapotitlán, we won’t have to pay for so many things”: the Great Recession, return migration and social reproductionIntroductionThe return of hard-working immigrants: carefully navigating the perils of “fracaso”Carla: economic crisis and competition among low-waged workersThe “flexibility” of deteriorated bodies: return migration, illness and injuryUrsula: “I didn’t want to go back. I had nothing to go back to”Beatriz: “I came home because my mom couldn’t take care of my son anymore”Gilda: “there were times when grief w ould flow’ out of me”Transnational mothering and “illegality”Remittances and non-migrant householdsJuana: employment in the local tourist sendee economyConclusions: gender, social reproduction and returnNotesReferencesEconomic crisis and the social reproduction of Mexican transnational working classesIntroductionFrom migration-return to the social reproduction of working classes across spacesAccelerated migration and US insertion: fragmented, heterogeneous class subjectsEconomic crisis and the limits of the dual frame of referenceThe selectivity of staying (in the US)/returning (to Mexico), gender and social reproductionAn uneven crisis: The Great Recession and the service sectorReinsertion and social reproduction in MexicoThe continuing need for remittances and the financialization of rural lifeThe selective hegemony of poverty’ administration: the “poor” and “women”NotesReferences
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