APPLICATIONS OF BLOCKCHAIN-ENABLED PRIVACY-PRESERVING MODELS IN IOT

Let us explore different industries and functions and how blockchain technology can be implemented as part of the digital transformation today and in the long-term future. Blockchain is really for every industry. We will see it in the legal field, supply chain, government management, how energy is traded and managed and calculated. We will definitely see it in the retail space, in the food processing industry, healthcare [43,44]. Even travel hospitality, insurance business, down to education, like certificates, for example, can be approved by utilizing blockchain technology.

Mobile Communication

From 7 billion people in the world, only 4 billion own a toothbrush, but nearly 7 billion have access to a cellphone. So, mobile communication is everywhere. But only 20 % of all world population have access to the banking system currently. Now, with blockchain technology, everybody with a connection to the internet can transact

Example of IoT architecture. (From www.scnsoft.com/blog/iot-architecture- in-a-nutshell-and-how-it-works.)

FIGURE 11.8 Example of IoT architecture. (From www.scnsoft.com/blog/iot-architecture- in-a-nutshell-and-how-it-works.)

with everybody else, allowing social scalability beyond our wildest dreams. The new economic models previously impossible before the emergence of blockchain technology are coming more and more in our daily lives. It can provide the underlying economic principles that empower a fast scaling and shared economy, demanding new banking and transaction models. Designing a smart home application using IoT is presented in Figure 11.8 in which the user has complete control over his/her home with the application installed on his/her mobile.

Healthcare

The motivation is to make use of decentralized sharing storage system in healthcare. In the research work [18], the author aims to design a novel sharing storage system in the blockchain (Storj and Filecoin). This will help the patient to make their personal health information to propagate in the peer-to-peer blockchain network. Whereas in [2], the author applied a blockchain and enabled the method of updating electronic medical records in which distributed ledger protocol is combined with Bitcoin application. The proposed MedRec blockchain addresses the issues like slow access to medical data, system interoperability, patient agency, and improved data quality and quantity for medical research.

Automobiles

In the field of automobiles finding out an optimum path to charging stations of electrical vehicles is a challenging issue. To address this problem, the author in [3] had proposed a model that finds an optimum charging station without disclosing the geographic position details of the customer. In which, a blockchain is used toward providing transparency. The privacy of the proposed protocol is evaluated in an honest-but-curious adversary model. The author in [Ю] proposed a remote attestation security model (RASM) based on a privacy-preserving blockchain. The proposed security model is evaluated using a real vehicle to everything (V2X) scenario. It satisfied the security requirements of being decentralized, traceable, anonymous, and non-repudiatable and has excellent performance. The experimental results show that the RASM can effectively enhance the security performance of the V2X.

Real-Time Business

Now that we have a basic understanding of blockchain technology, we can envision by industry and function how everybody can be a winner with the use of this technology. Let us look how marketing for blockchain technology can teach us better community engagement. I will show you different use cases by industry and current challenges, and how we can use blockchain technology to improve client and customer engagement. Marketing with blockchain technology, it will be different. Rethink marketing and advertisement to include deeper customer engagement, rewards from customers for valuable content, loyalty and awareness programs, and creation of marketplaces.

Marketing with blockchain technology dramatically different experiences than what we have today. We will see new payment transactions modes. We will see a customer that have a cryptographic proof of her identity and the credentials. Customers can provide eligibility to shop on your site as a citizen of a certain country, or part of a certain group without telling any personal information whatsoever, through the blockchain technology. On the other hand, it allows no tracking that is imposed on customers today and provides them more privacy themselves. Advertising for blockchain innovation resembles great network showcasing. What we see currently is the genuine intensity of network to manufacture brands, in a period of hyper-associated people with feeling and energy. Eagerness for the convention draws in new devotees. The developing of biological system expands the estimation of the coin itself and invigorates its advancement. You will see an ever increasing number of brands that are brought into the world dependent on a reasonable mission, for the most part for upsetting an occupant.

A lightweight security saving ring mark plot exchanges by true clients [6]. This mark’s ensures that data has not been changed, as though it was secured by a carefully designed seal that is broken if the substance were adjusted. A ring mark enables an underwriter to sign a message secretly. It uses twofold encryption of information utilizing lightweight encryption calculations (ARX figures) and open encryption plans (Diffie-Hellman key trade procedure). Making use of these both procedures together will ensure the security, protection, and secrecy of client’s information through IoT gadgets.

Legal Sector

The legal sector has for quite some time been depending on a huge measure of information as desk work. It could profit massively from the across the board execution of savvy contracts, understandings that can be consequently initiated activities dependent on explicit conditions. For instance, the canny contract may require a driver to be modern on their vehicle installments to physically begin the vehicle. What’s more, as a pattern is of most blockchain arrangements, brilliant contracts can radically lessen exchange costs and give predominant security versus customary methods.

Media and Entertainment

A blockchain letter could be used to secure intellectual property like music and film, making it possible to enforce usage rights and mitigate digital piracy. So, the entertainment industry is embracing it. And for them, it also creates new opportunities for sharing and monetizing their content. Makes it possible for musicians, writers, and other artists to embedded royalty payments into their digital files, their ebooks. We can reward customer’s centric behavior of individuals and teams that value creation with tokens. Think verified Linkedln data with digital signatures for experience, education, recommendations, and created in a decentralized or even outsourced team that could use blockchain-based collaborations and reward solutions to create value for their customers. The management function itself will likely be touched by blockchain technology. There might be large companies that will have no fulltime employees outside of their executive-level suite. Decentralized Autonomous Organization like DAOs, those are organizations that have no formal managers at all, and just smart contracts that are executing the agreements might be another possibility. But it requires that executives excel in understanding the product, communicating the vision of the brand, the mission of the organization, the story for their community and tools and collaboration infrastructure to create and deliver value to the customers. They have to understand the whole supply chain. For example, when you buy into a shop today and buy a bag of coffee, we really don’t know if it’s organic free trade, even if it’s written on that label.

With blockchain technology, that can be changed as well. You can be able of the provenance of a product you’re buying, end to end that creates a verifiable supply chain and that can become part of the value propositions for your customers. Are companies using it? Yes. Global organizations with lots of existing business units and requirements, like Walt Disney, see the potential for blockchain technology from secure Internet of Things (IoT), to managing their logistics and Intel of finances. They have created something called Dragon-Chain, which allows enterprise programmers to utilize blockchain technology in their environment and make the technology available in open source. Juniper Research surveys for 400 top-level executives showed that 67 % said they had already invested more than 100,000 into the technology. And 91 % say they would be spending at least 100,000 in 2017 to understand what blockchain technology can do for them.

Security

By providing an overview of different application domains of blockchain technologies in the Internet of Things. The threat models of blockchain protocols in IoT networks are classified into five main categories: identity-based attacks, manipulation-based attacks, cryptanalytic attacks, reputation-based attacks, and service- based attacks [16]. By providing a feasible solution to this attack, an author in [7] performed experiments and addressed a new location-based privacy attack in the crowdsensing system using a private blockchain to protect worker location and prevent re-identification attack. Similarly, in [14], the author proposed a blockchain- based privacy-preserving task matching scheme for crowdsourcing address the privacy-preserving task matching, identity anonymity, and reliable matching [46].

 
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