The Place of English as an International Language in English Language Teaching: Teacher’s Reflection

English as an international language: An overviewIntroductionEnglish in the worldPedagogical implications for English language teaching (ELT) and learningThe paradigm of EILEIL in the literaturesummaryReferencesThe current status of EnglishIntroductionThe current status of EnglishDemographic changes of EnglishNative and non-native dichotomyOwnership of EnglishGeographic changes: global spread of EnglishStructural changes to the English languageLinguistic featuresPronunciation featuresVocabularyGrammarAttitudes towards varieties of EnglishsummaryReferencesTeaching English as an international languageIntroductionLanguage teaching and competenceTeaching models in ELTTeaching of culture(s) in ELTThe definitions of cultureCulture, language and ELTTeaching materials in ELTsummaryReferencesEnglish language teaching in VietnamIntroductionThe context of VietnamHistorical and geographical aspectsCultural aspectsSociolinguistic contextThe status of English in VietnamEnglish in Vietnam before 1986The colonial period (before 1954)After the French departure (1954-1975)English in reunified Vietnam from 1975 to 1986English from 1986 up to the presentFeatures of English in VietnamCurrent situations of ELT in VietnamThe formal systemThe informal systemIssues of ELT in VietnamCommunicative language teachingCLT in practice in the context of VietnamsummaryReferencesThe studyIntroductionResearch approachData collection methodsInterviewsFocus groupsIndividual interviewsIntegrating focus group and individual interview dataInstrumentsFact sheetsThe research teamTHE MODERATORTHE NOTE-TAKERData collection processParticipantsRecruitmentDescriptions of the participants and locationsData collection proceduresInterview proceduresMethodological modificationsApproaches to data analysisData transcriptionData codingData analysissummaryReferencesReflections on the current status of EnglishIntroductionThe spread of EnglishEnglish has spread globally as an international languageThe number of NNSs of English is increasing fastEnglish is not only the language of NSsEnglish will continue to be popularThe diversity of EnglishEnglish is a language with variationsDifferent varieties of English existVietnamese English will develop in the futureTeachers’ attitudes towards globalised EnglishAttitudes towards ‘standard’ EnglishAttitudes towards other English varietiesDiscussionsummaryReferencesReflections on the implications for teaching modelsIntroductionTeachers should teach only ‘standard’ EnglishThe English being taught is insufficientRaising students’ awareness of the diversity of English can be done in various waysUse of teaching materials reflecting the diversity of EnglishUse of teachers’ experiences in foreign countriesStudents’ exposure to various spoken EnglishesIntroduction of NNSs of English to studentsOther varieties of English should only be introduced to experienced studentsDiscussionsummaryReferencesReflections on the implications for the teaching of culture(s)IntroductionTeachers teach mainly American and British culturesDependence on textbooks based on American and British normsDependence on teachers’ knowledge and experience of culturesDependence on the requirements of the dcpartments/schoolsOther cultures should be introduced to students in the classroomOther cultures can be included in various waysIntroducing other cultures whenever they are presented in textbooksTeaching other cultures through teachers’ knowledge and experience, especially their experiences in foreign countriesUse of teaching materials containing a diversity of culturesIntegrating other cultures through teaching topicsGrouping culture(s) and selecting unique cultural features from these groupsComparisons of cultures, especially Vietnamese culture with othersDiscussionsummaryReferencesReflections on the implications for teaching materialsIntroductionTeachers’ preference for American and British publicationsVarious ways of using existing textbooksDrawbacks of current textbooksOut-dated contentIrrelevant teaching contentSuggested teaching tipsTeachers’ adaptation and creativityTeachers’ criteria for selecting and designing teaching materialsThe need to integrate additional teaching materials reflecting the diversity of EnglishDiscussionsummaryReferencesTeaching constraints and challenges in TEILIntroductionTeachers’ limited capacity in teaching EILThe exam-orientated educational systemLack of teaching materials representing the recent changes in EnglishScarcity of supportive environments for English language practiceInsufficient financial support for teaching activitiesTime constraintsStudents’ low proficiency in EnglishThe adoption of CEFR for assessing language competencyDiscussionsummaryReferencesPedagogical implicationsIntroductionSummary discussion of the findingsPedagogical implicationsTeachers’ resulting perceptions on English pedagogyIncreasing EIL/ELE/WE exposure in teacher educationInspiring a change in attitudes/mindsets of ELT practitionersRecommendationsFor future researchFor the development/application of TEIL in Vietnam and similar contextsFinal wordsReferencesAppendix A: Demand for English(es)Appendix B: Interview questionsAppendix D: Name coding in focus groupsAppendix E: Basic questions used for coding strategiesAppendix F: Analysing group interaction
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