Chinese Heritage Sites and their Audiences: The Power of the Past

Research backgroundBook statementFieldwork and data collectionDocumentary sourcesQualitative interviewsSemi-structured interviewsInterviews with domestic tourists and residentsObservationStructure of the bookNotesInternational debate on heritage and tourismUNESCO World Heritage Programme, Eurocentric process‘Boundedness’ of heritageThe authorised heritage discourseEvolving of UNESCO World Heritage ProgrammeCommunity and heritageIssue of heritage tourismChina’s heritage tourismThe active sense of touristsHeritage as a cultural processConclusionNoteHeritage and tourism in ChinaA context: China’s history and its traditional philosophiesChina’s tourism developmentRed tourismRural tourismChina’s heritage developmentChina’s heritage management systemsInfluence of the Cairns DecisionDiscussionConclusionNotesThe Chinese sense of heritage: The nature–culture journeyCase study backgroundThe authorised heritage discourse and harmony discourse of West LakeFieldworkAnalysis of documentary sourcesQualitative interviews with Chinese government officials at both national and local levels, and with expertsInterviews with key officials from national governmentsInterviews with key officials from the local government of HangzhouInterviews with expertsQualitative interviews with Chinese domestic tourists and residents of HangzhouTourists’ and local people’s discourses of World Heritage and cultural landscapeWest Lake: cultural diversity and integrityWest Lake: a continually changing landscapeThe emotional feeling associated with the notion of Ten Poetically Named Scenic PlacesConclusionNotesFeeling a sense of placeTourism as a problem: discourses from officials and expertsTourists’ active sense of heritagePersonal memoriesCollective memoriesSense of feelingLocal people’s attitudes to tourism and touristsDissonantConclusionNotesCultural moments at heritage sitesXidi and Hongcun – background and tourism developmentFieldworkInterviews with domestic tourists and residentsInterviews with key local government officials from Xidi and HongcunInterview with tourism operatorsObservationsTourists and cultural momentsDiscussion – comparison of Xidi and HongcunConclusionNotesLocal people’s reactions to heritage tourismLocal people’s reactions to tourismLocal people’s reactions to the government’s policies and management modeThe local management policies – ‘Keep Old, Keep Authentic’ConclusionNotesDiscussion: Emotion, tourist agency and heritageThe influences of the authorised heritage discourseEconomic gain, cultural gainEmotional engagement in cultural momentsEmotional expression of feelingEmotional interactions between local people and touristsConclusionNotesBook summarySome implications for World Heritage practiceFurther research
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