Appendix C: LLC Coaching Protocol




Session date, time, location:

Prepare (To be completed prior to session)

□ Review log from previous event

□ Review skill goal from previous event


□ Inquiry □ Change management □ Systems thinking

□ Adult learning □ Systemic oppression □ Emotional intelligence


□ Directive □ Collaborative □ Reflective/cognitive □ Transformative

What do I need to be aware of or look for? What questions do I have?


How are things?

What celebrations and challenges have you had since our last session?

This session will be a success if...


Debrief action items




Summarize session to leader

New action items:

Ask the leader: Was the session a success?

Appendix D: LLC Debriefing Protocol




Session date, time, location:

General Assessment

In general, how do you think the coaching session went?

What went well?

What didn’t go as well as you had hoped?

What did the leader get from the session?

What was the value added for the leader from this session?

Did you see any areas of growth in the leader or the work the leader is doing?

What do you want to achieve at the next session?

Coaching Assessment

What do you think you did well as a coach?

What lenses were used?

□ Inquiry □ Change management □ Systems thinking

□ Adult learning □ Systemic oppression □ Emotional intelligence

What stances were used?

□ Directive □ Facilitative □ Cognitive □ Transformative

What aspects of your coaching do you want to work on next time?

Application to District

What opportunities might you have to engage in coaching over the next few weeks?

How might something you have learned today help you in those opportunities?

Facilitator Support

Is there anything I could have done to assist you during this session or we could have done better together?

Is there anything else you would like to discuss?

Appendix E: LLC Action Research Cycle Background Information

The action research cycle should be conducted with an action research team.

Step 1


Identify the problem

Develop a problem statement

State a primary research question

State 3-5 guiding questions


A problem is something that is different from a standard or expectation, has an unknown cause, and is of concern. It occurs over a significant period of time and is substantial enough in complexity, magnitude, and potential benefit to warrant studying. Identifying the problem is a lengthy process. To begin, state the topic in general terms. Next, write a research question and some additional questions to help you guide your work.

Examples of problems:

  • • Eighth-grade male students consistently score higher than female students on math tests.
  • • The school’s dropout rate has increased over the past three years.
  • • At least one fifth-grade student comes to class each day without completing the assigned homework.


Problem statement

Research question

Guiding questions

There are a large number of discipline-related infractions that lead to office referrals and students missing class instruction.

How can the number of disciplinary infractions that result in office referrals and loss of instructional time be reduced?

  • 1. Why are students being sent to the office?
  • 2. Who is being sent to the office?
  • 3. Who is sending students to the office?
  • 4. What practices are most effective at reducing disciplinary referrals?

Step 2


Collect and analyze data about the problem

Review relevant research

Determine additional data needs

Identify method of data collection and analysis


Be sure to consider the root cause of the problem, not the symptoms, such as poor test scores or discipline issues. Use the following prompts to help you complete the sub-steps:

  • • What does the research say about the problem you have identified?
  • • What data do you have to answer your research question?
  • • What additional data might you need?
  • • How will you collect and analyze these data?

Step 3


Consider solutions to the problem

Collect, summarize, and analyze data

Develop a theory of action and a logic model

Develop conclusions and recommend actions


A theory of action and a logic model show the connections between the parts of a program or initiative and how they will result in achieving your goal. Logic models and theories of action are most helpful at the planning stage. They can be used as a framework to help build the program, monitor its progress, and plan its evaluation. In addition to a list of the relevant contextual aspects, logic models are made up of four main parts:

  • • Inputs—The things that initiate an activity: resources, new evidence of a problem, etc.
  • • Activities—The building blocks of the project. Five to eight is a good number.
  • • Outputs—The immediate results of the actions
  • • Outcomes—The end results of implementing a program or series of activities.

What we hope to achieve as a result of our efforts. Outcomes can be short term (1—2 years), medium term (3-5 years), and long term (6 or more years)

E.1 The LLC theory of action

FIGURE E.1 The LLC theory of action

The figure above is an example of a theory of action. It illustrates how the LLC is connected to student outcomes.

The table below is an example of a logic model. It illustrates how the LLC theory of action can be put into practice.

TABLE E.1 The LLC logic model






Highly collaborative consortium of 12, mostly rural school districts

Supportive, collaborative district leaders

Partnership with university’s education leadership department

Moderate levels of student academic outcomes and social and behavioral competencies

Limited leadership capacity to address challenges

Limited opportunities to support leadership development

University faculty and students

SSEC districts’ support of participants

SSEC executive director

LLC steering committee

K-P partnership characterized by:

  • • shared commitment
  • • strong communication
  • • shared leadership
  • • trusting relationships
  • • willingness to span boundaries

Faculty serve as facilitators of LLC—i.e., horizontal and vertical communities of leaders and leadership coaches meet bi-monthly in whole-group and small-group sessions LLC activities focus on developing distributed instructional leadership and coaching capacities in participants by conducting two, year-long action research cycles

Increased abilities of leaders to:

  • • use data to lead sustainable school improvement efforts
  • • develop the capacities of formal and informal instructional leaders
  • • develop a culture that supports teaching and learning

Increased abilities of leadership coaches to:

  • • support leadership development in the leaders
  • • support leadership development within their own districts

Increased student academic outcomes and social and behavioral competencies

Ability to conduct action research to continuously improve and sustain academic student outcomes and competencies

Step 4


Implement the solution

Develop a research-based action plan

Implement the action plan with fidelity


To ensure the solution is implemented successfully, an action plan should be developed that includes a stated objective and a list of tasks, the people responsible for completing them, the date they will be completed by, and the resources needed to complete them. The objective should be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time bound.

Objective: Reduce the number of disciplinary infractions that result in office referrals and loss of instructional time by 25% in the second nine-week period of the school year.


Person responsible


Resources required


Step 5


Evaluate the results

Evaluate the results of the action research cycle

Use the results to begin planning the next cycle


1 The steps in this action research model were developed using multiple school improvement planning sources. See the references for a complete list of the sources used.


Bauer,S. C., & Brazer, S. D. (2012). Using research to lead school improvement:Turning evidence in action. Washington DC: Sage.

Learning Point Associates. (2004). Guide to using data in school improvement efforts. Author.

Retrieved from Logan, J. P. (2014). School leadership through action research. New York, NY: Pearson.

Spaulding, D.T., & Falco, J. (2013). Action research for school leaders. New York, NY: Pearson.

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