Annotated bibliography

The number of works that draw on ANT has increased considerably in many disciplines. The success of this repertoire has interested many from disciplines such as organisation studies, sociology, geography, architecture, archaeology, informatics and so on. The popularity, and also the quantity, of articles, books and interviews with Bruno Latour, who is now considered one of the prominent intellectuals of our time, has accelerated the spread of its vocabulary and the curiosity of many in understanding the coordinates of this infra-language. As we have emphasised in the past chapters, ANT’s popularity has multiplied just when some of its founders (the same Latour but also Law and Callon) have tried to distance themselves from it, probably frightened by or aware of the risks and the responsibility that is associated with any success.

ANT and education studies met later; nevertheless, the 2010s have seen increasing attention to this approach, which is now considered a very important and innovative resource for understanding the current transformation of the space-time of education.

In the following annotated bibliography, I will help the readers through the many worlds of ANT and ANTiE by selecting books and articles that are crucial for an understanding of this repertoire that is, as we have seen, collective and open and has acquired a life of its own, an independence from their initiators. The trajectory of this “creature” was not completely predicted from the beginning, as the approach helps us to see while investigating the emergence and the consolidation of the new entity.

I will distinguish, in particular, books and articles on ANT and ANTiE literature. I will reprise some works already noted in the past chapters, but I will also add other references to give readers the opportunity for wider reading. I will present the references in chronological order. There is no prescription or ranking in the reading; readers can decide to move as they wish. I will limit, however, the list of annotated works only to those in English or translated into English. As clarified in the volume, ANT has a French starting point; it started spreading quickly with the English acronym. Of course, there is ANT literature in other languages (for example, Spanish, French, German and Italian) which it would be interesting to list, but there is no space to reference them here. This could be a new book.

Navigating in ANT

ANT literature demonstrates a movement from science and technology studies to broader research interests. The literature, here, also permits us to move historically between the temporalities of the repertoire: “ANT 1990,” “ANT and After,” “Near ANT”

Books

Latour, B. (1987). Science in action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

This book clarifies the characteristics of the repertoire, although it does not contain the acronym “ANT.” It explains an interest in understanding science in the making and lists several methodological rules to disentangle the black box of technoscience. Science and technology are not meant to be separate but are considered a seamless network. The book contains some basic conceptualisations of the repertoire, such as black box, obligatory point of passage and strategy of translation. Overall, it is framed in the sociology of translation (Callon, 1986b).

Latour, B. (1993). We have never been modern. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

In Chapter 2, we described this book at length, where Latour explores the philosophical foundations of the repertoire. In particular, he troubles the modern constitution and reflects on the dilemma of contemporary society, where there is an increasing impossibility in making a clear distinction between subjects and objects. He did so through a historical account of the origins of the modern condition and the current crisis. The book is very important to understand the specific characteristics of the repertoire, although it does not necessarily reflect the common thinking of those drawing on ANT in their research.

Law, J. (1994). Organizing modernity: Social ordering and social theory. Oxford: Blackwell

Publishers.

This book draws on a long ethnography undertaken in a laboratory; however, it is not a classic in laboratory studies, and it is not merely an empirical work. The empirical materials here offer a “springboard” for reflections on the study of social order through an ANT repertoire. It is probably the book that attracted the attention of organisation scholars, as it proposes the notion of “modes of ordering” and highlights the possibilities of sociomaterial studies of the dynamics of organisation.

Law, J., & Hassard.J. (Eds.). (1999). Actor network theory and after. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

This book was a milestone, as it was the turning point that ended “ANT 1990” and opened a new season of studies, called “ANT and After,” according to the title of this book. It is an edited volume that originated in a conference and includes several chapters where several criticisms are raised and new directions of research are proposed. It was at this time that some of the “founders” (Latour, Law and Callon) started to distance themselves from the approach. The book contains contributions by Latour (1999), Law (1998), Callon (1999), Mol (1999) and Lee and Stenner (1999). This latter contribution underlines how ANT can be read as a cultural project that sustains an “infinite inclusion.”

Latour, B. (2005). Reassembling the social: An introduction to actor-network theory. Oxford:

Oxford University Press.

This book focuses on sociology. Latour contrasts the sociolog}' of the social and the sociology of association. In this work, he draws conclusions about the effects of the ANT repertoire

Annotated bibliography 127 on sociolog}'. He suggests moving from the Durkheimian project of considering the social as a substance to starting a new understanding where the social is grasped as a circulating entity, as an ongoing process. The book also contains interesting notions that enrich the already complicated vocabulary of ANT: panorama, oligoptica, “psycho-morphs,” plug-ins that point to a step toward a more comprehensive vocabulary.

Nimmo, R. (Ed.). (2016). Actor network theory research (4 Vols Set). London: Sage Publications.

This is an impressive set of four volumes where readers can find key texts of ANT. The work is helpful to understand the diffusion of ANT over more than thirty years. It collects the first articles and documents the unfolding of the approach. The volumes also introduce the controversies and the criticisms the repertoire has attracted during this time. Particularly interesting are the uptake of ANT in disability and animal studies, geography, and environmental studies and the methodological implications. It is probably the most comprehensive collection of articles on ANT research.

Blok, A., Farias, I., & Roberts, C. (Eds.). (2019). The Routledge companion to actor-network theory. London and New York: Routledge.

A very recent collection where many scholars reflect on “Near ANT,” this draws on ANT and relaunches this sensibility by hybridising the repertoire with new approaches and fields of research. Several virtual potentialities are reconsidered, and new topics are explored. The political and ethical characteristics of the repertoire are brought to the forefront. The accusations of agnosticism seem to have been rejected, and there is a push for showing the political and ethical presuppositions.

Articles and book chapters

Latour, B. (1983). Give me a laboratory, and I will raise the world. In К. К Cetina & M.

Mulkay (Eds.), Science observed: Perspectives on the social study of science (pp. 141-70). London and New York: Sage Publications.

In this article, Latour focused on the Pasteur network. Formerly, with Steve Woolgar (Latour & Woolgar, 1979), he had carried out a detailed study of laboratory practice. Now, he extends the same methodology to understanding the interplay between “inside” and “outside” the laboratory. The article, therefore, describes the strategy of translation whereby Pasteur was able to transform French society into a vast laboratory. The case was described, in more detail, in Latour (1984), Les Microbes: guerre et paix, suivi de Irreductions (Paris: LaDecouverte). The article is included in a broader collection putting together studies with diverse methodological and theoretical orientations.

Callon, M. (1986a). Some elements of a sociology of translation: Domestication of the scallops and the fishermen of Saint-Brieuc Bay. The Sociological Review.

Callon’s research on the domestication of scallops and the fishers is a paradigmatic case. It has been retold many times, and it is the basic text of the sociology of translation. We described it in detail in Chapter 3. One of the merits of the article is the model of translation (problematisation/interessement/enrollment/mobilisation): it easily provides a “script” for telling other innovation stories. The principle of generalised symmetry is applied for the first time, and “scallops” were represented with the same repertoire as the “fishers.”

Callon, M. (1986b). The sociology of an actor-network: The case of the electric vehicle. In

Mapping the dynamics of science and technology (pp. 19-34). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

This is the article where the term “actor-network” appears for the first time. It came from the French “Acteur-réseau.” Here, it is presented to account for the (im)possibility of the electric vehicle. It explains how the internal combustion engine depends on a network of people, things and technology and at the same time, that the condition of possibilities for an electric car did not exist (at least at the time Callon wrote the article).

Law, J. (1989). Technology and heterogeneous engineering: The case of the Portuguese expansion. In W. E. Bijker, T. P. Hughes, &T. Pinch (Eds.), The social construction of technological systems: New directions in the sociology and history of technology (pp. 111-34). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

In this chapter, Law presents the case of Portuguese vessels and the birth of the Portuguese Empire. The article describes the complex and risky process of creation—that is, the heterogeneous engineering of items in a hostile environment made of winds, sea currents, the shape of the vessels, astrolabes and the human abilities for navigation outside the Mediterranean Sea that permitted the Portuguese to travel and circumnavigate the continent of Africa and reach the Indian Ocean. We have described this case in detail in Chapter 3.

Latour, B. (1991). Technology is society made durable. In J. Law (Ed.), A sociology of monsters:

Essays on power, technology, and domination (pp. 103-31). London: Routledge.

In this chapter, Latour invites us to include non-humans when accounting for the social order. It is necessary to include technology, things and artefacts to explain why society persists over time. Delegation to non-humans is considered a key mechanism. The semiotics here are mobilised to disentangle the dynamics of ordering. The syntagm and paradigm couple in linguistics is extended to materialities. Notably, the horizontal dimension points to the association of items (in linguistics, the syntagm), while the vertical dimension concerns the exploration of the substitution (the paradigm). Several examples are given, including the famous case of the loaded hotel key and the birth of the Kodak camera. In those cases, there is a narrative of innovation where a program tries to counter the anti-program, that is, the opposite forces that tend to disassociate the associations that are temporally emerging.

Akrich, M. (1992). The de-scription of technical objects. In W. E. Bijker & J. Law (Eds.), Shaping technology, building society: Studies in sociotechnical change (pp. 205-24). Cambridge, MA, and London: MIT Press.

Semiotics is a very important resource for ANT. According to Law, it can also be defined as “material semiotics” (Law, 2009). In this article, Akrich clarifies how de-scription is the opposite operation to that of researchers deploying a script, the scenario of technical objects, while engineers make inscriptions, that is, inscribe the know-how of technologies. Several other concepts are defined in other works, such as in Akrich, Madeleine, and Latour, B. (1992). A summary of a convenient vocabulary for the semiotics of human and non-human assemblies. In W. E. Bijker & J. Law (Eds.), Shaping technology/Building society. Studies in sociotechnical change (pp. 259-64). Cambridge, MA and London: MIT Press. In other articles, this vocabulary is illustrated in the case of the sociology of a door: see Latour, B. (1992). Where are the missing masses? The sociology of a few mundane artifacts. In W. E. Bijker & J. Law (Eds.), Shaping technology, building society. Studies in sociotechnical change (pp. 225-58). Cambridge, MA, and London: MIT Press.

Mol, A., & Law, J. (1994). Regions, networks and fluids: Anaemia and social topology. Social studies of science, 24(4), 641-71, and Laet, M. de, & Mol, A. (2000). The Zimbabwe bush pump: Mechanics of a fluid technology. Social Studies of Science, 30, 225-63.

While the cases of scallops, the Portuguese vessel and the Pasteur network were important for the repertoire of ANT 1990, the cases of anemia and of the Zimbabwe bush pump are important for the “ANT and After” scenario. Both cases draw attention to the multiplicity of reality and move the investigation from the “construction” to the “enactment” of something; here, an illness or a technology. The article shows the multiple instantiations of anaemia and the bush pump and the issue of the co-existence of multiple ontologies.

Gomart, E., & Hennion, A. (1999). A sociolog}' of attachment: Music amateurs, drug users.

The Sociological Review, 47(l_suppl), 220-47.

This article presents a further direction of research in “ANT and After.” It proposes the concept of “attachment” to account for the dynamics of subject networks. Music amateurs and drug users are practitioners who learn how to abandon themselves to music and drugs. They learn how to be affected by sounds or substances. The article shows the forms of active conditioning that involve a mix of activity and passivity. The concept is reprised in Latour, B. (1999a). Factures/fractures: From the concept of network to the concept of attachment. Res, (36), 20-31. It shows the exploration of subjectivities that emerge in forms of attachment.

ANTiES literature

The ANTiES literature reveals that the repertoire circulates in education studies via two entry points: science and technology education and organisation studies—that is, either through science educators who explore the educational possibilities of the approach or through scholars working on the borders between the groups of scholars in organisation and education studies. Occasionally, the two pathways overlap.

Books

Nespor, J. (1994). Knowledge in motion: Space, time and curriculum in undergraduate physics and management. Philadelphia: Falmer.

This is the first complete book where ANT and other theoretical approaches, such as feminist sociology and the constructivist perspective, are used in the analysis of the curriculum in higher education. It is an empirical study presented through the lens of ANT 1990 and is focused on the circulation of knowledge at university. The book presents a comparison between two diverse ways of putting knowledge in motion, in physics and management. Educational courses are seen as included in wider networks made of texts, people and social practices. It shows how students are inserted into networks of knowledge and power.

Verran, H. (2001). Science and an African logic. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

This is an ethnography of teaching science to Yoruba school teachers in Nigeria. This book is fascinating, as it starts from a disconcertment about the way numbers and logics were imagined in a Nigeria classroom in contrast with the Western logic of numbering and generalising. The contrast described in the framework of generalised symmetrical anthropology leads the author to a more comprehensive understanding of all generalising logics. It shows that maths and logic are culturally relative. The book is partly anticipated with a chapter in Verran ( 1999) and the ANT and After book edited by John Law and Hassard in 1999.

Sorensen, E. (2009). The materiality of learning: Technology and knowledge in educational practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

This volume is a mix between a theoretical presentation of the trajectory of ANT in its passage from the early origins to the contemporary development and the presentation of empirical research on technology (a virtual environment in a Danish school) in an educational setting. It draws on an ethnography and on literature coming mostly from science and technolog}' studies.

Fenwick, T, & Edwards, R. (2010). Actor-network theory and education. London: Routledge.

This book is a cornerstone in ANTiE. It was co-authored by Fenwick and Edwards to offer an introduction to actor-network theory for educators. This publishing project was intended to introduce ANT as a research approach in education. The volume describes educational studies that have employed ANT approaches in classrooms, workplaces and community settings, drawn from the U.K., U.S., Canada, Europe and Australia. Notably, it shows how ANT was able to shed new light on curriculum-making, the dynamics of education policies and the unfolding of education reforms and the contemporary forms of technologised learning. Moreover, it underlines how ANT studies are contributing to a rethinking of the methodology of research in education. Finally, it illustrates how ANT is not just a method of research but also a way to intervene in education policy and practice. These two authors have opened the way to the wide diffusion of ANT in education studies with this work. This book is a valuable introduction to the first vocabulary of ANT but also to “ANT and After.” The authors illustrate the possibilities provided by several approaches, enriching the basic ANT approach.

Fenwick, T, & Landri, P. (Eds.). (2014). Materialities, textures and pedagogies. London: Routledge.

This book originates from an edited collection of articles on pedagogy, culture and society (Fenwick & Landri, 2012). It selected a set of contributions presented in a session of the EASST (European Association for the Study of Science and Technology) Conference “Practicing Science and Technology, Performing the Social,” realised at the University of Trento from September 2-4, 2010 (www.unitn.it/archivio/events/en/easst010.html). The “Sociomaterial Assemblage in Education” session intended to identify the emergence of an in-between place of STS and education as an important area of inquiry made visible through studies addressing pedagogy and knowledge production, contributions which had explored the value of STS conceptualisations for education more broadly. In these explorations, education is understood to encompass not only curriculum and practices related to public schooling but also pedagogical encounters in the workplace, community, social movements and postsecondary institutions, wherever learning is occasioned through specific purpose, content and activity.

This book joins a developing tradition of “practice-based” conceptions of learning but with a special interest in foregrounding the materiality of educational processes. It challenges educational views that are preoccupied with developing a particular kind of human subject and argues that relationships between materials—including texts and technologies, embodiment, tools and natural forces—are key to understanding how learning and knowing emerge in collective activity. The authors draw from orientations associated with actor-network theory to critically examine materiality but push these conceptions forward to create an important in-between place of inquiry in sociomaterial/STS studies and education. The book includes chapters authored by Mulcahy (2012); Ceulemans, Simons and Struyf (2012); Roehl (2012); Arvisen, Nerland, and Thompson (2012); Aberton (2012); and Postma (2012).

Fenwick, T, & Edwards, R. (Eds.). (2019). Revisiting actor-network theory in education. London and New York: Routledge.

This volume describes new developments of ANT in education: ethics and politics; educational policies and critical studies of assessment practices; and research into digital technology in education.

This book collects articles that address important educational issues while showing creative theoretical and methodological possibilities for ANT studies in education. The selected articles are Tim Flohr Sorensen, We have never been Latourian: Archaeological ethics and the posthuman condition; Richard Edwards and Tara Fenwick, Critique and politics: A sociomaterialist intervention; Jill Koyama, Resettling notions of social mobility: Locating refugees as “educable” and “employable”; Bryan Maddox, Globalising assessment: An ethnography of literacy assessment, camels and fast food in the Mongolian Gobi; Dianne Mulcahy, Policy matters: De/re/territorialising spaces of learning in Victorian government schools; Arathi Sriprakash and Rahul Mukhopadhyay, Reflexivity and the politics of knowledge: Researchers as “brokers” and “translators” of educational development; Sanna Rimpilainen, Multiple enactments of method, divergent hinterlands and production of multiple realities in educational research; Kurt Thumlert, Suzanne De Castell and Jennifer Jenson, Short cuts and extended techniques: Rethinking relations between technology and educational theory.

Articles

Fountain, R. M. (1999). Socio-scientific issues via actor network theory. Journal of Curriculum

Studies, 31(3), 339-58.

This article discusses how ANT can be of interest to science education. It draws on the ANT literature and on the seminal work of Roth and McGinn (1997). Science in schools and everywhere else: What science educators should know about science and technology studies. Studies in Science Education, 29(1), 1-43. He draws some conclusions about curriculum theory. The aim is to explain that an ANT repertoire allows the creation of scientific knowledge to be described and the interplay between knowledge and power without assuming relativism. The starting point is that the analytical framework that underlies science education often presents knowledge as uncontested. The author thinks that ANT can be helpful in science education, as it 1) traces the mechanisms of credibility; 2) expands the unit of analysis: the study of controversies helps us to understand how the production of knowledge implies disciplinary crossing and critical thinking and is useful for students to support their argumentation during a discussion as they are trying to make their claims more credible than others’ and reading to engage in a “trial of strength” to defend their position in a scientific discussion; 3) helps to understand how evidence is mobilised; 4) is useful for educators to enhance their self-reflectivity; and 5) suggests reflection on the space for potential associations in a network of knowledge. The interest in controversies is key when ANT is translated in education. This has also been reprised recently in Elam, M„ Solli, A., & Makitalo, A. (2019). Socioscientific issues via controversy mapping: Bringing actor-network theory into the science classroom with digital technology. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 40(), 61-77. The analysis of the controversies is updated here, by considering the digital possibilities.

Clarke, J. (2002). A new kind of symmetry: Actor network theories and new literacy studies.

Studies in Adult Education, 34(2), 107, 122.

This article points out how ANT was also used in adult education and was intended to contribute to including a new conceptualisation in literacy studies, where more attention is shifted toward the materialities. This work also quoted the article by Mary Hamilton, drawing on ANT to study adult education policy.

Gough, N. (2004). RizhomANTically becoming cyborg: Performing posthuman pedagogies.

Educational Philosophy and Theory, 36(3), 253-65.

In this article, ANT is taken as part of a movement toward cyborg pedagogy. There is, in particular, an engagement with posthuman perspectives (Haraway, Braidotti). The work is published in a journal that has an interest in educational philosophy and theory. This also refers to the “Manifesto for Cyborg Pedagogy”: Angus, T, Cook, I. & Evans, J. (2001). A manifesto for cyborg pedagogy?, International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education, 10:2, pp. 195-201. Educationally, it proposes links with cyberpunk science fiction. These links welcome engagement with art and creativity in science education.

Fenwick, T, & Edwards, R. (2011). Special issue: Actor-network theory in education: A focus on educational change, Educational Philosophy and Theory, 43(1).

This is an important special issue published in parallel with Fenwick and Edwards (2010) where several original contributions are presented in curriculum studies and education policy. In particular, Jan Nespor, Devices and educational change (Nespor, 2011); Richard Edwards, Translating the prescribed into the enacted curriculum in college and school (Edwards, 2011); Mary Hamilton, Unruly practices: What a sociology of translations can offer to educational policy analysis (Hamilton, 2011); Radhika Gorur, ANT on the PISA Trail: Following the statistical pursuit of certainty (Gorur, 2011); Dianne Mulcahy, Assembling the “accomplished” teacher: The performativity and politics of professional teaching standards (Mulcahy, 2011); Tara Fenwick, Reading educational reform with actor network theory: Fluid spaces, otherings, and ambivalences (Fenwick, 2011).

Landri, P. (2018). Towards a mobile sociology of education. In J. McLeod, Sobe, W. Noah, & T. Seddon (Eds.), Uneven space-times of education: Historical sociologies of concepts, methods and practices (pp. 240-55). London: Routledge.

This chapter stems from a special issue of the European Education Research Journal edited by Paolo Landri and Eszter Neumann, where several contributions presented at the Network 28 Sociologies of Education of the European Educational Research Association were invited to reply to a call for mobile sociologies of education. The chapter suggests that ANT invites the sociology of education to move beyond itself and reflects on the effects of this reflexivity. Notably, it proposes three implications of this movement: a) from a human-centered approach to the co-implication of humans and non-humans in social links; b) from methodological nationalism to a post-national scenario in education; and c) from a policy-centered approach to a perspective moving from policy to practice.

Gorur, R., Hamilton, M., Lundahl, C., & Sjôdin, E. S. (2019). Special issue “Politics by other means? STS and research in education,” Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 40(1), 1-15.

This special issue develops the intersection between STS and education studies even further. It includes studies drawing on the perspectives of ANT and STS. It provides an introduction to STS and the late uptake of STS in education and furnishes a list of topics where STS and education studies have met. The intersection is helpful to explore 1) knowledgemaking practices; 2) the interwining of technology and society; 3) learning practices; 4) science and democracy; 5) metrics, politics and scientific objectivity; and 6) the creation of educational science. The special issue contains the following articles: a) Describing children at risk: Experiments with context, Helene Ratner (Ratner, 2019); b) Beyond workforce

Annotated bibliography 133 preparation: Contested visions of “twenty-first century” education reform, Ethan Chang (Chang, 2019); c) Creating the valuable: Reading as a matter of health and successful parenthood, Elin Sundström Sjödin (Sjödin, 2019): d) Socioscientific issues via controversy mapping: Bringing actor-network theory into the science classroom with digital technology, Mark Elam, Anne Solli & Asa Mäkitalo (Elam, Solli, & Mäkitalo, 2019); e) Adapting to the test: Performing algorithmic adaptivity in Danish schools, Laura Hovsgaard Maguire (Maguire, 2018); f) Pedagogic affect and its politics: Learning to affect and be affected in education, Dianne Mulcahy (Mulcahy, 2019); g) Out of the box: Behaviourism and the mangle of practice, Antti Saari (Saari, 2019); and h) Performing mundane materiality: Actor-network theory, global student mobility and a re/formation of “social capital,” Alfredo Salomäo Filho & Annelies Kamp (Salomäo Filho & Kamp, 2019). The special issue concludes with some final considerations for future programs: STS in/as education: Where do we stand and what is there (still) to gain? Some outlines for a future research agenda, Mathias Decuypere (Decuypere, 2019).

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