Handbook of Research Methods in Health Psychology

I. Theories and MethodologiesAPPLYING THEORIES IN HEALTH PSYCHOLOGYOverviewCognitive-Based vs. Ecological ModelsResearch in PracticeThe Theory of Planned BehaviorTheory of Reasoned ActionTesting the Theory of Planned BehaviorThe Health Belief ModelTesting the Health Belief ModelThe Biopsychosocial ModelTesting the Biopsychosocial ModelEcological ModelsThe Social Ecological ModelTesting the Social Ecological ModelBehavioral Ecological ModelTesting the Behavioral Ecological ModelConclusionReferencesSTATISTICAL TOOLBOX OF PSYCHOLOGYOverviewResearch in PracticeWithin-Person Idiographic Designs (e.g., n-of-1 Studies)Ecological Momentary AssessmentSurvival AnalysisMeta-Analytic Structural Equational ModelingBayesian StatisticsOverall Strengths and LimitationsRecommendations for Future ResearchConclusionReferences“THE CIRCLING SPIRITS CALL US HOME”: MARGINAL METHODS, THE SHAMAN, AND RELATIONAL APPROACHES TO HEALING RESEARCHOverviewResearch in PracticeThe Shaman’s Place TodayMarginality: At the Edge of Mainstream NormsMarginal MethodsHistorical Biographic Studies of ShamanEthnocultural ResearchersAnd Now Shadow WalkerBut Is This Proper Science?Field Research Involves Collaborative PartnershipsRelational MethodologySpirituality and HealingEstablishing Culturally Resonant Relationships With CommunitiesConclusionReferencesII. Genetic Studies and HealthGENETICS RESEARCH METHODSOverviewResearch in PracticeBreeding and BreedsBasic Sanger SequencingSequencing the FTO GeneEmploying ELISA for GhrelinCRISPR/Cas9CRISPR/Cas9 and ObesityConclusionReferencesRESEARCH METHODS IN ALCOHOLISMOverviewResearch in PracticeUsing the Alcohol Self-Administration Experiment to Test Genetic Differences Between Adolescents, Men, and WomenThe Washington University Twin Study of Alcoholism: A Study Method AnalysisThe Leu72Met Polymorphism of the Prepro-Ghrelin Gene Is Associated With Alcohol Consumption and Subjective Responses to Alcohol: Preliminary Findings: Study Method AnalysisThe Arf6 Activator Efa6/PSD3 Confers Regional Specificity and Modulates Ethanol Consumption in Drosophila and Humans: MethodologyTransgenic Mice With Increased Astrocyte Expression ofCCL2 Show Altered Behavioral Effects of AlcoholConclusionReferencesBEST PRACTICES FOR STUDYING ADDICTIONOverviewResearch in PracticeClassical Conditioning as a Tool to Understand Drug AbuseImmunohistochemical Investigation of Long-Term Brain Damage After Drug Exposure in Nonhuman PrimatesUsing Event-Related Potentials to Assess Brain Reactivity to Cues and Other RewardsThe Clinical Trial as a Test of Pharmacotherapy and Psychotherapy’s EffectsUtility of Longitudinal Designs and the Classical Twin Study for Understanding AddictionConclusionReferencesAPPLICATIONS OF NEXTGENERATION SEQUENCING IN HEALTH PSYCHOLOGYOverviewResearch in PracticeGenome-Wide Association StudiesDifferential ExpressionExome SequencingTargeted Gene SequencingEpigeneticsThe MicrobiomeConclusionReferencesTHE ETHICS OF GENETICS RESEARCHOverviewEthical FrameworkThe Four PrinciplesLimitations of the Four PrinciplesVeracity and FidelityResearch in PracticeGenetic Testing and Secondary FindingsEthical FrameworkRecommendations and Future ResearchGenetic Testing and PrivacyEthical FrameworkGenetic Selection and Genetic ModificationGenetic SelectionGenetic ModificationEthical FrameworkConclusionReferencesIII. Physiological Studies and HealthPHYSIOLOGICAL RESEARCHOverviewResearch in PracticeAccuracy of Smartphone AppsDoes Exposure to Chronic Stress Affect Blood Pressure?Cortisol in a Hair Biomarker in YouthSalivary Cortisol and ELISAsAA and StressConclusionReferencesSTRESS PHYSIOLOGY AND PHYSIOMETRICSOverviewResearch in PracticeCortisolSalivary a-Amylase (sAA)Systemic InflammationStress ReactivityTelomere LengthStrengths and LimitationsRecommendations for Future ResearchConclusionReferencesCARDIOVASCULAR REACTIVITY AND STRESSOverviewResearch in PracticePsychoneurointmunological Response to Psychological StressOverview of the Immunological Response to Psychological StressAcademic Examinations to Study Psychological Stress AdaptationsChronic Stress and Endothelial DysfunctionReal-Life Stress and Cardiovascular ReactivityAcute Exercise Effect on Cardiovascular Reactivity With StressAerobic ExerciseResistance ExerciseMitochondrial Function and Responses to Psychological StressOverview of Mitochondrial FunctionAssessment of Mitochondrial Respiratory FunctionMitochondrial Function and Response to Psychological StressConclusionTable of AbbreviationsReferencesOBESITY AND NUTRITION: Physiological StudiesOverviewResearch in PracticeA Just-in-Time Adaptive Intervention to Reduce Sedentary BehaviorA Just-in-Time Adaptive Intervention to Reduce Energy IntakeA Smartphone-Based Gestational Weight Gain InterventionSchool-Based Obesity Prevention InterventionNovel Biochemical Analysis of Food Intake and Energy ExpenditureThe Doubly Labeled Water MethodA Carbon Isotope to Estimate Sugar IntakeProtein Intake From Nitrogen BalanceStrengths and WeaknessesConclusionReferencesSOCIAL NETWORKS, DEPRESSION, AND STRESSOverviewResearch in PracticeGene by Environment (Stress Buffering)Targeted RejectionParticipatory Action ResearchEcological Momentary AssessmentSocial Networking Sites and DepressionStrengths and LimitationsConclusionReferencesDON’T SWEAT IT! NEUROIMAGING STUDIES OF STRESSResearch in PracticeThe Brain-Body Connection: The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal AxisA Brief History of Psychological Approaches to Understanding Stress in HumansThe Trier Social Stress TestThe Montreal Imaging Stress TaskConclusionReferencesIV. Population DemographicsNEIGHBORHOOD STUDIES OF ADOLESCENT HEALTHOverviewNeighborhood-Based StudiesAdolescence and ObesitySubstance UseHybrid City-Regional and Neighborhood-Based StudiesEmpirical StudiesMental HealthStrengths and Limitations of Neighborhood-Based and Empirical StudiesConclusionReferencesRE-EVALUATING THE SOCIAL GRADIENTOverviewResearch in PracticeCase Study 1. Accelerated Longitudinal Design: How Are Health Inequalities Changing Over Time and Across Cohorts?Case Study 2: Using Cohort Data to Explore Changes in Social Inequalities in Infant Feeding PatternsCase Study 3: Hypertension Care Outcomes in the United States and EnglandCase Study 4: Life Events and the Social GradientCase Study 5: Area Health Effects: Is Urbanization Good for Health?ConclusionReferencesCHRONIC ILLNESS: The Case of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Myalgic EncephalomyelitisOverviewResearch in PracticeStigma Associated With the NameCase DefinitionCommunity-Based EpidemiologyNetwork Analysis of CytokinesTreatmentStrengths and LimitationsRecommendations for Future ResearchConclusionReferencesGENDER AND AGING RESEARCH METHODSOverviewResearch in PracticeCase Study 1: Qualitative Research DesignCase Study 2: Intervention ResearchCase Study 3: Ecological Momentary AssessmentCase Study 4: Participatory ResearchCase Study 5: Cohort StudiesCase Study 6: Pragmatic TrialsConclusionReferencesSOCIOECONOMIC CONTEXT OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH RISK BEHAVIORS: Life Course Developmental Research MethodsOverviewResearch in PracticeThe Modeling of Multiple Early Risk ExposureAn Example Study: Modeling Multiple Early Risk ExposureThe Modeling of Health Risk Behavior TrajectoriesEstimation of TrajectoriesAn Example Study: Modeling Health Risk Behavior TrajectoriesModeling Transitions in Health Risk Behavior TrajectoriesEstimation of Trajectories With TransitionsAn Example Study: Modeling Health Risk Behavior Trajectories With TransitionsModeling Heterogeneity in Health Risk Behavior TrajectoriesAn Example Study: Modeling Heterogeneity in Health Risk Behavior TrajectoriesIntegrating the Life Course Perspective Into Health Disparities Intervention ResearchAn Example Study: Integrating the Life Course Perspective Into Health Disparities Intervention ResearchStrengths and LimitationsRecommendations for Future ResearchConclusionReferencesV. Environmental StudiesUNIQUE ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH Natural, Physical, and Community FactorsOverviewResearch in PracticeHurricanesAir PollutionWildfiresSocial EnvironmentConclusionReferencesMULTIPLE WAYS OF UNDERSTANDING VACCINE HESITANCE AND REFUSALOverviewResearch in PracticeVaccines in ContextWho Are These Parents?How Do We Understand Parental Decision-Making?What Changes Perceptions of Vaccines?ConclusionReferencesVIOLENCE AND HEALTH THROUGH THE LIFESPAN: The Critical Role of Childhood Exposures and Developmental ContextOverviewResearch in PracticeAdverse Childhood Experiences: A Retrospective Study of Health Impacts Over the Life CycleExposure to Collective Violence, Childrens Health, and Perceived Safety in Society: A Community Participation Perspective and ApproachCollective Violence in the Form of Racial Discrimination: An Empirical Study of the Effects on Health and Perceived Safety in a School SettingRacial Discrimination and Health: Prevention at the Individual LevelThe Continuum of Exposure and Cumulative Effects of Violence Exposure: Youth at High Risk for Poor Health OutcomesConclusionReferencesENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES: Lead StudiesOverviewResearch in PracticeBiomarker SelectionOther Important Methodological Issues Related to the Measurement of LeadPresence of Other Toxicants and Nonessential MetalsExposure RoutesHealth Outcome SelectionCohort EffectsStrengths and LimitationsConclusionRecommendations for Future ResearchReferencesGEOGRAPHIC DETERMINANTSOverviewResearch in PracticeEcological Momentary AssessmentsTwin StudiesParticipatory Action ResearchCohort StudiesQualitative StudiesConclusionReferencesCLIMATE CHANGEOverviewResearch in PracticeTextual AnalysisContent AnalysisSummarySurvey ResearchAudience Segmentation DesignSummaryQuestionnaire Survey ResearchInterview Survey ResearchExperimental ResearchSelective Exposure DesignSummaryQuasi-Experimental DesignStrengths and LimitationsRecommended Future ResearchConclusionReferencesVI. Health Policy and Future Directions in ResearchIMPACT OF NUTRITION HEALTH POLICY ON OUTCOMESOverviewResearch in PracticeImpact of National School Lunch Program on Fruit and Vegetable Selection in Northeastern Elementary Schoolchildren, 2012-2013SNAP-Ed Increases Long-Term Food Security Among Indiana Households With Children in a Randomized Controlled StudyMeta-Analysis to Determine Impact of Restaurant Menu Labeling on Calories and Nutrients (Ordered or Consumed) by US AdultsModeling the Potential of Taxes on Sugar-Sweetened Beverages to Reduce Consumption and Generate RevenueExploring Power and Influence in Nutrition Policy in AustraliaConclusionReferencesTHE NEXUS BETWEEN BEHAVIORAL AND HEALTH ECONOMICS IN THE UNIVERSAL HEALTH COVERAGE RESEARCH AGENDAOverviewResearch in PracticeEvaluating Access to Quality Health Services Using Quantitative MethodsUsing Quasi-Experimental Methods to Evaluate Health InterventionsApplying Quantitative Methods to Evaluate the Impact of Health Financing Reforms on Health SystemsEvaluating Perceptions of Quality of Health Services Using Qualitative Research MethodsUsing Case Studies to Assess Health OutcomesStrengths and LimitationsRecommendations for Future ResearchReferencesNEXT-GENERATION GENETICSOverviewResearch in PracticeGene SequencingNext-Generation SequencingNanoDrop SpectrophotometerMinlONConclusionReferencesRESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND PSYCHONEUROIMMUNOLOGYOverviewResearch in PracticeImmune SystemCellular CompartmentCytokines as a Marker of Immune StatusImmunoglobulins, Complements and Acute-Phase ReactantsStudy Design and Use of Various Immunological Assessment TechniquesInflammation: Psychological Status and DiseaseConclusionCurrent Status and Future ImplicationsReferencesNUDGE THEORYOverviewResearch in PracticeStudy 1: Using Defaults to Increase Organ DonationStudy 2: Using Incentives to Help People Quit SmokingStudy 3: Using Norms to Decrease University Student DrinkingStudy 4: Using Salience to Decrease Hospital Do Not Attend RatesStudy 5: Using Commitments to Increase Vaccination UptakeStrengths/LimitationsRecommendations for Future ResearchReferences
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