Applied Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology: Current Approaches to Helping Clients

Theoretical orientations in service deliveryHelping in sport, exercise, and performance psychologyThe helping process in sport, exercise, and performance psychologyTheoretical orientationsDefining theoretical orientationsAssessing psychological skills training as an orientationConclusionReferencesPsychodynamic approachesHistorical contextTheoretical assumptionsBasic personality structuresThe unconsciousDefence mechanismsTransference and countertransference and early childhood experiencesPsychodynamics and sportPracticeGoals of treatmentCase conceptualisationPsychodynamic assessment in sportJenny and image 3Sport psychology analysis and interpretationPsychodynamic analysis and interpretationRole and style of practitioner-athlete relationshipIntervention strategies and techniquesFree associationDreamsInterpretationsCase studyTigers on the court: the tale of ChrisAbout meParting thoughtsReferencesPerson-centred approachesHistorical context and development in sportTheoretical assumptionsConceptualisation of person, well-being, and performanceAcquisition and perpetuation of well-being and performance issuesPracticeGoalsCase conceptualisationRole and style of practitioner-athlete relationshipIntervention strategies and techniquesCase studyPreambleBackground context and referralInitial meetingThe athlete’s narrativeAn unfolding storyA person-centred understandingThe athlete's next stepConclusionBibliographyCognitive therapy approachesHistorical context and development in sportTheoretical assumptionsPracticeGoals of treatmentStructure of cognitive therapyMood check and updateBridging from the last session and reviewing action plansAgenda setSet action plansEvaluate sessionTherapeutic relationshipCase formulation/assessment techniquesIntervention strategies and techniquesSocratic methodsTechniques to elicit thoughtsCognitive restructuringContinuumsSchema therapyCase studyIntroduction to the client and case formulationInterventionOutcomesSummaryReferencesMindfulness approachesHistorical context and core principlesMindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR)Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)Development in sportMindfulness, acceptance, and commitment (MAC) approachMindful sport performance enhancement (MSPE)EvidenceOther developments in sportPracticeCase conceptualisationRole and style of practitioner-athlete relationshipCase studyParting reflectionsReferencesExistential approachesHistorical context and development in sportTheoretical assumptionsPracticeCase studySetting the sceneConclusionsReferencesFamily systems therapy approachesHistorical context and development in sportTheoretical assumptionsPracticeGoalsCase conceptualizationRole and style of practitioner-athlete (andfamily) relationshipIntervention strategies and techniquesChange processCase study: working within an elite skating environmentChildhood case with direct family interventionConclusionReferencesCognitive behavioural therapy in performance enhancement: using exposure and behavioural experiments with elite athletesHistorical and cultural contextCommon challenges within an elite sport contextDefinitions and background of exposure and behavioural experimentsDecreasing avoidance and expanding the behavioural repertoire: the usefulness of behavioural experiments and exposure in sportForms of exposureBehavioural experimentsPractice: working with exposure and behavioural experiments in a sport contextThe behavioural analysis: a fundamental too! for effective interventionsA description of the use of exposure in sportAssessment andfunctional analysis of the problemPsychoeducationDeveloping an anxiety hierarchyExposureHome assignmentsMaintenance and relapse preventionCase studyLessons learned from working in an elite sport contextFinal comments and summaryReferencesBrief consultations in sport and performance psychologyHistorical context and development in sportTheoretical assumptionsConceptualization of person, well-being, and performancePracticeGoalsCase conceptualizationRole and style of practitioner-athlete relationshipIntervention strategies and techniquesRefraining or shifting perspectiveGoal setting to increase positive, wanted behavioursStrength spotting and strength applicationExceptionsScalingFeedbackChange processCase studiesCollegiate male distance runner: single-session (one-hour)Competitive youth female tennis player: brief contact intervention (20 minutes)Adult female actor: single session (one-hour)Collegiate tennis player: brief contact intervention (15 minutes)ConclusionReferencesLife skills interventions with elite athletesHistorical context and development of life skills interventions for athletesTheoretical assumptions associated with life skills interventionsBarriers to goal attainmentLife skills development and transferPsychological mechanisms underpinning life skills development and transferPractice: delivering life skills interventions with elite athletesStep 1: Understanding athletes' biographiesStep 2: Developing a goal attainment strategyStep 3: Promoting appropriate risk-taking behaviourStep 4: Identifying and preparing for transitionsStep 5: Identifying social support and relevant knowledge for goal attainmentStep 6: Life skills development and transferCase study of a life skills intervention with an elite cricketerConclusionReferencesDeveloping an integrated approachDefining integrationReasons practitioners integrate modelsPathways towards integrationTechnical eclecticismTheoretical integrationAssimilative integrationCommon factorsChallenges with integrating theoretical orientationsTraining in an integrative mind setEnsure prerequisite knowledgeUnderstand supervisees ’ biases and anxietiesRecognize the challenge of integrationClarify expectations and goalsShare experiences with superviseesBuild a strong supervisory relationshipTailor supervision to the traineeProvide a systematic modelCase StudyConclusionReferencesCultural considerations in practiceWhat it means to be a culturally competent practitionerCultural competence in sport, exercise, and performance psychologyThe benefits of cultural competenceThe barriers to cultural competenceSuggestions for the way forward for practitioners and researchersStereotypes versus generalizationsIntercultural communicationCulturally competent researchCase examples of considering culture in practiceCoach in Papua New GuineaAthletes in Papua New GuineaWorkshops with coaches and athletes in the Pacific Islands (e.g., Vanuatu, Fiji)Intervention with Korean athleteConclusionReferencesEvidence-based practiceDefining evidence-based practiceReasons for evidence-based practiceA transdisciplinary model of evidence-based practiceWhat is the best available evidence?Best evidence in sport, exercise, and performance psychologyResearch evidence regarding performance enhancement in sportCan sport psychologists justify helping athletes?Implementing evidence-based practice in sport psychology: the 7AsAspireAskAcquireAppraiseApplyAssessAdvertiseFactors influencing evidence-based practiceAbilityMotivationOpportunityResistance to evidence-based practiceConclusionReferencesPractitioner development: adopting and adapting service delivery approachesEarly days: doing as you are told?Moving forward: exploring service delivery approachesA roadmap for the reflective journeyThe technical route for reflection: from techniques to paradigm, the case of Vana’s early daysThe technical route for reflection: your tour guideThe foundational approach for reflection: from values to working model, the case of Vana’s current understanding of practiceThe foundational approach for reflection: your tour guideConclusion: one journey, multiple destinations?References
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