Blockchain-enabled Fog and Edge Computing: Concepts, Architectures, and Applications

I. Fundamental concepts and applications of blockchain-enabled fog and edge computingFrom blockchain Internet of Things (B-IoT) towards decentralising the Tactile InternetINTRODUCTIONBLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGIESEthereum versus Bitcoin blockchainsDecentralised autonomous organisations (DAOs)BLOCKCHAIN loT AND EDGE COMPUTINGBlockchain IoT (В-loT): Recent progress and related workBlockchain-enabled edge computingTHE IEEE P1918.1 TACTILE INTERNETThe Tactile Internet: Key principlesHuman-agent-robot teamworkLow-latency FiWi-enhanced LTE-A HetNets with Al-enhanced MECLow-latency FiWi-enhanced LTE-A HetNetsAl-enhanced MEC: Pushing Al to the edgeDECENTRALISING THE TACTILE INTERNETDecentralised edge intelligenceCrowdsourcing: Expanding the HO workforceBLOCKCHAIN, Al, AND HUMAN INTELLIGENCE: THE PATH FORWARDCognitive-assistance-based intelligence amplificationHITL hybrid-augmented intelligenceThe rise of the decentralised self-organising cooperativeNudging towards human augmentationOPEN CHALLENGES AND FUTURE WORKCONCLUSIONSREFERENCESBlockchain concepts, architectures, and Smart city applications in fog and edge computing environmentsINTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEWBACKGROUND AND MOTIVATIONloT ecosystemEdge computing in the IoT ecosystemloT security conceptsIoT ARCHITECTURES WITH EMPHASIS ON THE EDGE STRUCTURESArchitectural conceptsThe open systems loT reference modelG loT COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIESWireless technologies for the loTG wireless technologies for the IoTSMART CITY CONCEPTS AND COMMON SMART CITY APPLICATIONSUrban and city trendsSmart city applications of the IoTFormal definition of a Smart citySUMMARY OF APPLICABLE BLOCKCHAIN CONCEPTSBasic blockchain conceptsData integrity using blockchainsPossible weaknesses of blockchainsSURVEY OF SMART CITY loT APPLICATIONS THAT ARE OR WILL BENEFIT FROM BLOCKCHAINSSample loT blockchain applicationsSample IoT blockchain applications for Smart citiesloT security blockchain applicationsBlockchain implementation modes in the loTSpecific Smart city blockchain applicationsE-healthSmart gridLogisticsSurveillanceMunicipal smart serviceEconomic developmentVehicular applicationsInsurance and bankingDevice managementFUTURE RESEARCH AREASREFERENCESA Blockchain-enabled edge supported e-challan mechanism for content-centric Internet of VehiclesINTRODUCTIONVANETs versus IoVContent-centric IoVBlockchain with edge computingLITERATURE SURVEYContent-centric Internet of Vehicles (CC-IoV)Blockchain-enabled CC-loVBlockchain-enabled loVBlockchain-enabled CCNBlockchain-enabled CC-loVRESEARCH MOTIVATION AND PROBLEM STATEMENTPROPOSED BLOCKCHAIN-BASED EDGE MECHANISM FOR CC-loVGenerating packetsSpeeding vehicle info deliveryReporting an offenseValidation of offenseReply of offense validationSystem workflow of schemeRESULTS AND DISCUSSIONSSimulation environmentResults and analysisTime from offense to Blockchain transactionPackets overheadTrust in offense processingFinancial gainCONCLUSIONFUTURE WORKAPPENDIXREFERENCESII. Security and privacy issues in blockchain-enabled fog and edge computingHardware-primitive-based blockchain for IoT in fog and edge computingINTRODUCTIONInternet of ThingsBlockchainTransactionSigning a transactionReaching consensus: Proof-of-WorkPhysical unclonable functionsPUF-BASED BLOCKCHAIN PROTOCOLS FOR IOT IN FOG AND EDGE COMPUTINGData provenance protocolsThe setup phaseThe data transfer phasePerformance analysisCentralised versus decentralised architectureData provenance and data integrityDistributed consensusSecurity analysisAssumptionsThreat modelSecurity proofsFormal proofsCONCLUSIONAPPENDIXREFERENCESOn blockchain and its complementarity with fog computing to secure management systemsINTRODUCTIONloT CONTEXTFOG COMPUTINGFog computing strengths and weaknessesBLOCKCHAINSWhat is blockchain structure?How does blockchain work?What are blockchain key features?What are blockchain performance and security weaknesses?What is a smart contract?BLOCKCHAIN AND FOG COMPLEMENTARITYPROPOSITIONCONCLUSIONREFERENCESSecurity and privacy issues of blockchain-enabled fog and edge computingINTRODUCTIONCLOUD-TO-THING CONTINUUM BY MEANS OF FOG AND EDGE COMPUTINGRequirementsBLOCKCHAINTransaction processTypes of nodes in the blockchain networkTypes of blockchainBlockchain main ingredientsConsensus mechanismsCryptographySmart contractPrivacyBlockchain characteristicsChallengesScalabilitySecurityLawBLOCKCHAIN AND FOG AND EDGE COMPUTING: A POSSIBLE COOPERATIONReference architectureConsensus mechanismsSecurity advantagesPrivacy advantagesResource management using blockchainChallenges of the incorporationFUTURE DIRECTIONSCONCLUSIONSREFERENCESScaling edge computing security with blockchain technologiesEDGE SECURITY CHALLENGESIntroducing security at the edgeEdge architectural challengesScalabilitySecurityDevices computational capacityThe cloud as a secure architecture ‘no longer feasible’BLOCKCHAIN IN THE SECURITY ARENAWhy to use blockchainThe challengesBlockchain scalability issuesBlockchain data sharingBLOCKCHAIN ARCHITECTUREArchitecturesPermissionlessPermissionedHybridConsensusPublic algorithmsPermissioned algorithmsNew transaction acceptanceBLOCKCHAIN SERVICES IN EDGE COMPUTINGSecure device profilingAuthenticationIntegrity of the data provided by the edgeValidationGatewaysBLOCKCHAIN VERSUS CLOUD SOLUTIONS APPLIED TO EDGE SCENARIOSAuthentication modelSecure edge device profiling modelIntegrity of the data provided by the edge modelCONCLUSIONSACKNOWLEDGMENTREFERENCESBlockchain based solutions for achieving secure storage in fog computingINTRODUCTIONBACKGROUNDIoT overviewBlockchain overviewBlockchain versionsPublic and private blockchainsFog and edge overviewFog versus edge computingFog computing structureEMERGING ISSUES AND CHALLENGESloT general challengesQuality of Service (QoS)Security and privacyStorage and manipulating the huge amount of dataEnergy consumptionBlockchain general challengesStorage capacity and scalabilitySecurity: Weaknesses and threatsAnonymity and data privacyWasted resourcesTechnological challenges: Throughput, latency, size, and bandwidthFog and edge challengesScalability and adaptabilityHeterogeneity, efficiency, and performanceSecurity and privacyBLOCKCHAIN FOR EDGE AND FOGAdvantagesIssuesSecurity and data integrity issuesScalability and storage capacity issuesProcessing power and timeLegal and complianceSECURITY IN BLOCKCHAIN-BASED FOG COMPUTING SYSTEMS: SOLUTIONSSmart home solutionSmart health careSmart vehicularCONCLUSIONREFERENCESDifferential privacy for edge computing-based smart grid operating over blockchainINTRODUCTIONComparison of privacy-preserving techniquesEncryption-based privacyPRELIMINARIES OF PRIVATE SMART GRID EDGE COMPUTING OVER BLOCKCHAINSmart gridFog and edge computingBlockchainDifferential privacyVariants of differential privacyLITERATURE REVIEWBlockchain work considering edge computing and its privacyBlockchain work considering edge computing and smart gridBlockchain work considering smart grid and its privacyDIFFERENTIALLY PRIVATE RER MONITORING FOR EDGE-COMPUTING-BASED SMART GRID OPERATING OVER BLOCKCHAINSystem modelDesign goals of BDOR strategyBDOR strategy adversary modelProposed algorithm and flow chartPERFORMANCE EVALUATIONMean absolute and mean relative errorCHALLENGES AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONSPrivacy issuesSecurity issuesConsensus mechanismEnergy efficiency and throughputMachine learningCONCLUSIONREFERENCES
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